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Ontario  Historical  Society 


PAPERS  AND  RECORDS 


VOL   X. 


TORONTO 

PUBLISHED   BY 'THE   SOCIETY 
1913 


vitff-H 

OFFICERS,    1912-13 


Honorary  President : 

THE  HONORABLE  THE  MINISTER  OF  EDUCATION. 

President : 

JOHN  DEARNESS,  M.A.,  London. 

1st  Vice-President : 

CLARANCE  M.  WARNER,  Napanee. 

2nd  Vice-President: 

SIR  EDMUND  WALKER,  Toronto. 

Secretary  and  Acting  Treasurer : 

ALEXANDER  FRASER,  LL.D.,  Toronto. 

Auditors : 

J*.  J.  MURPHY,  Toronto.  FRANK  YEIGH,  Toronto. 

Councillors : 

A.  F.  HUNTER,  M.A.  D.  S.  WALLACE,  M.A. 

J.  STEWART  CARSTAIRS,  B.A.  W.  L.  GRANT,  M.A. 

ALEXANDER  FRASER,  LL.D. 


CONTENTS. 


CHAP.  PAOB 

I.     Major-General  Sir  Isaac  Brock,  K.B.    J.  A.  Macdonell,  K.C.         -      5 
II.    Romantic  Elements   in  the  History  of  the  Mississippi  Valley. 

Reuben  Gold  Thwaites,  LL.D.    -  -    33 

III.  Collections  of  Historical  Material  Relating  to  the  War  of  1812. 

Frank  H.  Severance,  L.H.D.       ~ :  -    43 

IV.  Despatch  from  Colonel  Lethbridge  to  Major-General  Isaac  Brock. 

Lieut.-Col.  Cole  -    57' 

V.    Military  Movements  in  Eastern  Ontario  during  the  War  of  1812. 

Lieut.-Col.  W.  S.  Buell      -  -    60 

VI.    Defence  of  Essex  during  the  War  of  1812.     Francis  Cleary.        -    72 

VII.     The  Economic  Effect  of  the  War  of  1812  on  Upper  Canada.  ** 
Adam  Shortt,  C.M.G.,  M.A.,  F.R.S.C.          -        -        -        -    79 


NOTE. 


The  Editorial  Committee  assumes  no  responsibility  for 
the  accuracy  of  statements  made,  or  for  opinions  expressed  in 
the  Papers  contained  in  this  volume. 

ALEXANDER  ERASER,  Secretary. 


I. 

MAJOR-OENEKAL  SIR  ISAAC  BROCK,  K.B.* 

(Born  6th  October,  1769  ;  died  13th  October,  1812.) 
BY  J.  A.  MACDONELL,  K.C.,  GLENGAKRY. 

"We  are  engaged  in  an  awful  and  eventful  contest.  By 
unanimity  and  despatch  in  our  councils  and  by  vigour  in  our 
operations,  we  will  teach  the  enemy  this  lesson :  that  a  country 
defended  by  free  men,  enthusiastically  devoted  to  the  cause 
of  their  King  and  constitution,  can  never  be  conquered." 

It  was  with  these  glorious  and  inspiring  words  that  Major- 
General  Brock,  then  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  Province  of 
Upper  Canada,  concluded  the  speech  with  which  on  the  27th 
July,  1812,  he  opened  the  extra  session  of  the  Legislature  of 
the  Province,  which  he  had  summoned  immediately  following 
the  declaration  of  war  by  the  United  States  on  the  18th  of 
June. 

He  had  been  appointed  Administrator,  or  President,  as 
the  office  was  then  styled,  on  the  30th  of  September,  1811, 
assuming  his  government  on  the  9th  of  October,  in  the 
absence  of  Lieutenant-Governor  Gore,  who  had  left  York 
(now  Toronto)  on  the  day  previous.  It  was  his  fate  nobly  to 
fall  at  Queenston  Heights  on  the  13th  of  the  same  month  in 
the  following  year ;  he  therefore  held  office  for  but  a  few  days 
over  a  year.  But  that  short  time  was  sufficient  to  obtain  for 
his  name  immortality,  so  long  as  the  English  language  can 
narrate  what  in  that  brief  period  he  accomplished,  and  to 
hold  forth  for  succeeding  generations  of  British  subjects  in 
Canada  and  throughout  the  Empire,  the  bright  example  of 
his  genius  and  his  gallantry,  his  indomitable  spirit  and  extra- 
ordinary fertility  of  resource. 

Isaac  Brock  was  the  eighth  son  of  John  Brock,  Esquire, 
a  gentleman  of  Guernsey,  of  good  family  and  independent 
means,  who,  in  his  youth,  had  been  a  midshipman  in  the 

*Read  at  the  meeting  of  the  Ontario  Historical  Society  at  Napanee, 
Ont,  1912. 


6 


ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 


Born  Oct. 
68' 


Eoyal  Navy,  by  Elizabeth  De  Lisle,  his  wife.    He  was  born 
at  St.  Peter's  Port,  Guernsey,  on  the  6th  of  October,  1768,  the 
same  memorable  year  which  gave  birth  to  Wellington  and 
Napoleon;  and  was  thus  but  forty-three  years  of  age  at  the 
time  of  his  death.     Singularly,  and  sadly  enough,  of  all  the 
eight  brothers  who  reached  maturity,  no  male  descendant  is 
now  in  existence  to  bear  that  honoured  name.     Brock  is  de- 
scribed as  being  always  tall  and  robust  for  his  age;  with 
strength  and  determination,  the  best  boxer  and  swimmer  of 
his  set,  yet  at  the  same  time  always  of  the  most  gentle  and 
kindly  nature.     In  more  mature  years  he  was  a  man  of  tower- 
ing frame  and  commanding  aspect.     From  a  primary  school 
at  Southampton  he  was  sent  to  complete  his  education  and 
perfect  his  knowledge  of  the  language,  to  a  French  pastor  at 
Eotterdam.     He  entered  the  8th  Eegiment  as  an  ensign,  when 
Sf teenyears  but  little  over  fifteen ;  raising  an  independent  company,  he 
was  gazetted  captain,  but  shortly  afterwards  was  placed  on 
half-pay.    In  1791,  by  purchase,  he  exchanged  into  the  49th 
Eegiment,  with  which  he  was  destined  to  be  so  long  and  hon- 
ourably associated,   and  which  took  part  in  the  Battle  of 
Queenston  Heights,  when  he  died.     He  served  with  that 
regiment  in  Barbadoes  an*d  Jamaica,  becoming  major  in  1795, 
and  lieutenant-colonel  in  1797,  while  yet  but  twenty-eight 
at  twenty-    vears  °^  age-     The  regiment  had  fallen  into  bad  habits  and 
eight  years   worse  discipline,  but  under  his  command  it  soon  regained  its 
good  character ;  the  Duke  of  York,  then  Commander-in-Chief , 
declaring  that  Lieut.-Colonel  Brock,  from  one  of  the  worst, 
had  made  the  49th  one  of  the  best  regiments  in  the  service. 
While  he  exercised  his  command  with  vigour  and  strictness, 
his  discipline  was  tempered  by  reason  and  justice.    He  pos- 
sessed that  happy  quality  which  the  French  call  "  camarad- 
erie," which  has  always  been  found  in  really  great  soldiers 
and  than  which  nothing  more  endears  a  commanding  officer 
to  the  men  who  are  fortunate  enough  to  serve  under  him — 
indeed,  the  secret  of  Brock's  influence  and  success  was  that 
he  really  cared  for  his  men,  and  that  they  recognized  that 
such  was  his  guiding  principle.     Under  his  command,  the 
49th  served  under  Sir  Ealph  Abercrombie,  and  subsequently 
Sir  John  Moore,  in  North  Holland,  in  1799,  where  Colonel 
Brock  greatly  distinguished  himself.     The  regiment  suffered 
severely  at  Egmont-op-Zee,  where  Brock  himself  was  wounded. 


1797. 
Lieut-Col. 
49th  Regt 


of  age. 


MAJOR-GENERAL    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK,    K.B. 

In  1801,  he  was  second  in  command  of  the  land  forces  in  the 
celebrated  attack  on  Copenhagen  by  Lord  Kelson. 

In  1802,  he  came  with  his  regiment  to  Canada,  and  ^a 
ada  was  happily  destined  to  benefit  by  his  untiring  services  to  Canada. 
for  the  following  ten  years,  while  here  it  was  his  lot  to  achieve 
imperishable  renown.     The  first  three  years  he  spent  on 
regimental  duty,  being  quartered  at  different  times  with  the 
49th  at  Montreal,  York,  Fort  George  (Niagara-on-the-Lake), 
and  Quebec.   In  1805  he  became  a  full  colonel  and  re  turned  j^" 
to  England  on  leave  of  absence.    While  there  he  laid  keforeRecom_ 
the  Commander-in-Chief  the  outline  of  a  plan  for  the  f  orma- 


tion  of  a  veteran  battalion  to  serve  in  Canada.  battalion 

The  Royal  Canadian  Volunteer  Regiment  of  Foot,  of  two 
battalions,  which  had  been  raised  and  placed  in  1796  on  the 
regular  establishment  of  the  army,  and  the  first  battalion  of 
which  under  Lieut.-Colonel  the  Baron  de  Longueuil  had  gar- 
risoned the  posts  of  Lower  Canada,  and  the  second  battalion 
uncjer  Lieut.-Colonel  Macdonell  those  of  the  Upper  Pro- 
vince, had,  together  with  all  Fencible  corps  in  the  army,  been 
disbanded  in  1802,  during  the  short-lived  Peace  of  Amiens. 
Both  Provinces  were  therefore  practically  without  regular 
local  forces.  But  Britain  at  this  time  had  her  hands  full 
with  Napoleon;  every  available  man  was  required  in  the 
Peninsula,  and  the  British  Government,  seeing  no  reason 
or  occasion  for  war  with  the  United  States,  did  not  believe 
that  war  would  take  place,  and  Colonel  Brock  did  not  there- 
fore succeed  in  convincing  the  Home  authorities  of  the  neces- 
sity of  establishing  such  a  corps  at  the  time.  He  received, 
though,  the  thanks  of  H.R.H.  the  Duke  of  York,  Commander- 
in-Chief,  for  his  communication  and  his  very  sensible  and 
valuable  observations  respecting  the  distribution  of  troops 
in  Canada,  and  the  promise  that  his  recommendations  would 
be  taken  into  consideration  at  a  seasonable  opportunity.  In 
the  light  of  events  which  transpired  in  the  near  future,  the 
wisdom  of  Colonel  Brock's  proposal  is  apparent.  His  sug- 
gestion was  that  detachments  of  the  proposed  corps  should 
be  stationed  at  St.  John's  and  Chambly  in  Lower  Canada, 
(now  the  Province  of  Quebec),  Kingston,  York  (now  To- 
ronto), Fort  George  (Niagara),  Amherstburg,  and  St. 
Joseph's  Island,  in  the  Upper  Province. 

While  on  a  visit  to  his  family  and  friends  in  Guernsey,  1806. 
Colonel   Brock   deemed   the   intelligence   from  the  United  home. 


8  ONTAEIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

States  to  be  of  so  warlike  a  character  that  he  resolved  upon 
returning  to  Canada  before  his  leave  had  expired ;  and  such 
was  his  anxiety  to  be  at  his  post  that  he  overtook,  at  Cork, 
the  Lady  Saumaurez,  a  German  vessel,  well  manned  and 
armed  as  a  letter  of  marque,  bound  for  Quebec,  and  left  Lon- 
don on  the  26th  of  June,  1806,  never  to  return  or  to  see  home 
and  kindred  again. 

Very  soon  after  his  arrival  in  Canada  Colonel  Brock  suc- 
ceeded to  the  command  of  the  troops  in  both  Provinces,  with 
the  pay  and  allowances  of  a  brigadier.  He  resided  in  Quebec 
until  the  arrival  in  October,  1807,  of  that  renowned  soldier, 
Sir  James  Craig,  as  Governor-General  and  Commander-in- 
Chief,  who  appointed  him  a  brigadier,  which  appointment 
was  subsequently  confirmed  by  the  King. 

warns  Brit-  ^n  September,  1806,  ever  zealous,  alert  and  watchful,  he 
ofhh?s°tmty  na(i  deeme(l  it  his  duty,  immediately  upon  his  return  to  Can- 
of  u.  s.  a(ja  an(}  on  ascertaining  the  precarious  and  critical  position 
of  affairs,  to  address  an  urgent  letter  to  the  Imperial  authori- 
ties in  which  he  stated  that  it  was  impossible  to  view  the  late 
hostile  measures  of  the  American  Government  towards  Bri- 
tain, without  considering  a  rupture  between  the  two  coun- 
tries as  probable  to  occur,  if  not  indeed  inevitable  and 
imminent,  and  that  he  was  in  consequence  most  anxious  that 
such  precautionary  measures  should  be  taken  as  the  exigencies 
seemed  not  only  to  justify,  but  to  demand. 

He  warned  the  Government  that  even  then  the  Americans 
were  busily  engaged  in  establishing  and  drilling  their  militia, 
and  openly  declared  their  intention  of  entering  Canada,  while 
the  defenseless  state  of  our  frontiers  constituted  the  strongest 
possible  inducement  to  them  so  to  do.  He  stated  that  the 
means  at  his  disposal  were  too  limited  to  enable  him  to  oppose 
them  with  effect,  and  that  unless  he  received  assistance  he 
would  be  obliged  to  confine  himself  to  the  defence  of  the 
Citadel  of  Quebec. 

Recommends       Again  in  180?  he  returned  to  the  subject,  when  forward- 

G°ire?|arr?of  in^  to  tlie  War  Office  tlie  Pr°P°sal  of  Colonel  Macdonell,  for- 

5g£ibie       merly  commanding  the  2nd  Battalion  K.  C.  V.   (which  had 

coiP°Mac-of  been  Disbanded  as  we  have  seen  in  1802),  for  the  formation 

doneii.          of  a  corps  of  Glengarry  Fencibles.     He  strongly  urged  the 

establishment  of  such  a  regiment,  to  be  raised  among  the 

Highland  people  in  Glengarry.     His  wise  suggestion  was 

not  at  the  time  carried  into  effect,  but  when  a  few  years 


MAJOR-GENERAL    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK,    K.B. 

afterwards  our  relations  with  the  United  States  had  arrived 
at  a  crisis,  the  British  Government  hastened  to  adopt  his 
plan,  and  the  "  Glengarry  Light  Infantry  Eegiment "  was 
raised  and  placed  upon  the  establishment  of  the  army,  that 
ubiquitous  regiment  which  was  to  take  part  in  almost  every 
battle  for  the  defence  of  the  country  in  the  War  of  1812-14, 
.and  to  amply  justify  Brock's  selection  of  the  Glengarry  High- 
landers as  the  men  to  face  the  emergency  and  rally  to  the 
defence  of  the  country — and  largely  to  save  it. 

But  his  efforts  extended  in  all  directions.  The  nav 
force  and  craft  in  Canada  were  then  in  an  incipient  and  ?^kesver  and 
exceedingly  unsatisfactory  condition.  General  Brock  was 
firmly  impressed  with  the  absolute  necessity  of  our  holding 
the  control  of  the  River  St.  Lawrence  and  the  Great  Lakes 
in  the  event  of  war,  and  shortly  after  taking  over  the  com- 
mand of  the  forces  he  turned  his  attention  to  that  urgent  and 
important  subject  and  directed  that  the  following  number  of 
boats,  independent  of  those  required  for  the  Commissariat, 
should  be  kept  in  constant  repair  at  the  several  posts  for  mili- 
tary service,  viz :  Quebec  6,  Three  Rivers  2,  William  Henry 
(Sorel)  1,  Montreal  7,  St.  John  2,  Kingston  4,  Fort  George 
12,  York  3,  and  Amherstburg  4,  a  total  of  41. 

In  1808  General  Brock  appears  to  have  been  stationed  Mon 
at  Montreal,  where,  as  elsewhere  in  Canada,  he  was  a  g 
social  favourite.     People  instinctively  recognized  his  worth, 
his  work,  his  zeal  and  ability,  and  appreciated  to  the  fullest  west  com- 
extent   the  wholehearted  manner  in  which  he  threw  himself  g^Jes'of 
into  the  discharge  of  his  every  duty.     Then,  too,  whatever auringwar. 
the  views  and  misconceptions  of  English  statesmen,   as  to 
what  was  coming  in  the  comparatively  near  future,  there  was 
no  doubt  whatever  upon  the  part  of  the  leading,  observant 
and  influential  men  in  Canada.     For  years  before  war  was 
actually  declared  by  the  United  States,  they  were  able  to 
read  the  signs  of  the  times  and  were  convinced  that  Brock 
was  the  man  for  the  occasion  when  we  had  to  face  the  inevit- 
able.    These  gentlemen,  therefore,  were  naturally  desirous 
of  showing^  their  appreciation  of  the  services  he  was  render- 
ing in  advance  to  face  this  great  emergency  and  to  forestall 
a  dire  catastrophe.     These  were  the  palmy  days  of  the 
brated  North-West  Company,  which  for  years  "  held  a  lordly  company. 


10  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

sway  "  over  the  wintry  lakes  and  the  boundless  forests  of  the 
Canadas,  almost  equal  to  that  of  the  East  India  Company 
over  the  voluptuous  climes  and  magnificent  realms  of  the 
Orient.  The  principal  partners,  Scotsmen,  and  mostly 
Highland  gentlemen  at  that,  resided  at  Montreal,  where  they 
formed  a  commercial  aristocracy,  and  lived  in  a  generous  and 
most  hospitable  manner.  Few  distinguished  travellers  visited 
Canada,  or  leading  military  men  stationed  here,  at  this  period, 
in  the  days  of  the  MacGillivrays,  the  MacTavishes,  the  Mac- 
kenzies,  the  Frobishers  and  the  other  magnates  of  the  North- 
West,  when  the  company  was  in  the  zenith  of  its  influence 
and  activity,  but  must  have  often  recalled  in  after  years,  the 
round  of  feasting  and  revelry  kept  up  by  those  hyperborean 
nabobs.  Then,  too,  they  were  at  the  head  of  what  was  prac- 
tically an  army  of  six  hundred  voyageurs,  hardy,  serviceable, 
intrepid,  inured  to  danger,  amenable  to  discipline  and  obedi- 
ent to  instructions.  With  these  merchant  princes,  General 
Brock  lived  on  terms  of  intimacy,  and  that  intimacy  was 
afterwards  to  be  productive  of  the  most  important  results. 
Not  only  did  the  North-West  Company,  when  war  occurred, 
immediately  constitute  themselves  into  one  of  the  most  use- 
ful, active  and  efficient  regiments,  the  Corps  de  Voyageurs 
Canadien,,  in  which,  with  scarcely  an  exception,  the  officers 
were  Highland  Scotsmen,  partners  and  officers  of  the  com- 
pany, and  every  voyageur  a  French-Canadian,  but  also  that 
Sir  George  Prevost,  then  Governor-General  (and  unfortun- 
ately Commander-in-Chief  in  Canada),  was  able  to  write  a 
despatch  informing  Lord  Liverpool  that  hostilities  had  com- 
menced, was  due  to  the  zeal  and  patriotism  of  the  principal 
partners  of  the  North-West  Company,  who,  foreseeing  the 
inevitable,  had  taken  extraordinary  precautions  and  means 
to  obtain  early  information  of  the  declaration  of  war  by  the 
American  Government. 


deciar  d  b          ^&*  was  declared  on  the  18th  of  June.    It  seems  almost 
18th     incomPrehensible  that  Prevost,  then  at  Montreal,   did  not 


advised  by   receive  official  intelligence  of  this  momentous  fact  from  Mr. 

fha-rje1         Foster,  who,  up  to  that  date,  was  British  charge  d'affaires  at 

mhajueiy°n  Washington,  until  the   26th  of  July,   fourteen  days  after 

General  Hull's  army  had  actually  invaded  Upper  Canada, 


MAJOR-GENERAL    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK,    K.B.  11 

and  equally  incredible  that  Mr.  Foster  did  not  see  fit  to  find 
some  means  of  conveying,  also,  official  intelligence  to  General 
Brock,  in  command  in  that  Province,  and  so  hard  beset  there, 
leaving  him  to  learn  the  news  by  the  roundabout  way  of 
Montreal,  when,  with  the  greatest  despatch,  a  fortnight  fur- 
ther must  in  those  days  have  elapsed  for  the  intelligence  by 
this  channel  to  reach  Fort  George,  the  military  headquarters, 
or  York,  then  the  seat  of  Civil  Government.     Thanks,  how- 
ever, to  Brock's  personal  friends  of  the  North-West  Company, 
six  days  after  the  declaration  of  war  at  Washington  (on  the 
18th  of  June),  on  the  24th  day  of  that  month,  it  was  made 24th  *£™oat 
known,  both  to  Sir  George  Prevost  at  Montreal,  and  to  Gen- 
eral  Brock  at  Fort  George,  when  Prevost  wrote  a  despatch 
to  Lord  Liverpool,  and  Brock  took  time  by  the  forelock,  with  ComPany- 
the  result  that  in  a  very  short  space  of  time  Hull's  invading 
force  of  2,500  men  was  being  marched  to  Montreal,  ragged 
and  dejected  prisoners  of  war,  and  Brock  was  in  possession  of 
Detroit  and  the  whole  State  of  Michigan,  and  had  captured 
sufficient  arms  to  arm  the  militia  of  Upper  Canada.       This 
prompt  and  invaluable  service  was  rendered  possible  by  the 
wise  precautions  and  statesmanlike  prescience  of  the  North- 
West  Company,  who  had  despatched  their  own  trusted  emis- 
saries to  Washington  with  instructions  to  watch  events,  and 
had  made  all  necessary  arrangements  so  that  the  very  moment 
war  was  declared,  intelligence  of  that  pregnant  fact  should 
immediately  be  rushed  through  to  Canada  by  their  voyageurs 
and  Indian  runners.    It  was  due  to  them  and  thanks  to  them 
alone,  that  the  first  knowledge  of  actual  hostilities  was  not 
conveyed  at  the  cannon's  mouth.    Brock  made  no  mistake  in 
the  selection  of  his  friends !     It  was  by  vigour  in  our  opera- 
tions that  the  country  was  to  be  saved  and  not  by  the  mere 
writing  of  despatches,  and  seldom  indeed  was  more  vigour 
shown  or  greater  and  more  conspicuous  service  rendered  than 
on  this  momentous  and  memorable  occasion. 

In  1810  Brigadier-General  Brock  was  stationed  as  Com- mo. 
mandant  at  Quebec,  where  he  enjoyed  the  whole  confidence  command  in 
of  Sir  James  Craig,  who,  like  himself,  was  every  inch  a  Canada, 
soldier,  though  embarrassed  with  the  difficult  and  unwelcome 
functions  of  Civil  Government;  but  so  thoroughly  did  Sir 
James  trust  and  rely  upon  him,  that,  strongly  impressed  with 


12 


ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 


Applies  for 
active  ser- 
vice in  the 
Peninsula. 


Sir  James 
Craig  pre- 
sents him 
with   his 
charger, 
"  Alfred." 


the  absolute  necessity  of  having  a  military  man  of  the  first 
character  and  reputation  take  charge  of  affairs  in  the  Upper 
Province,  he  despatched  General  Brock  to  Fort  George  with 
that  object,  and  with  the  exception  of  a  few  months  in  1811, 
during  which  he  visited  Lower  Canada  on  duty,  Brock  con- 
tinued in  command  of  the  troops  in  Upper  Canada  until  his 
death,  Lieutenant-Governor  Gore  at  first  administering  the 
Government  of  the  Province. 

But  during  all  this  time  great  events  were  transpiring 
elsewhere.  The  Peninsula  was  the  theatre  of  the  greatest 
war  in  which  Great  Britain  had  ever  been  involved,  and 
against  the  greatest  leader  the  world  had  ever  produced; 
honour  and  glory  and  professional  reputation  were  there  to 
be  obtained ;  military  advancement  to  a  man  of  Brock's  capa- 
city was  a  certainty.  Little  wonder,  therefore,  that  with  the 
accounts  of  Ciudad  Rodrigo,  Badajos  and  Salamanca  ringing 
in  his  ears,  he  found  Fort  George,  its  inactivity,  its  sombre 
life  and  dull  environment,  irksome  in  the  extreme. 

He  had  long  wished  for  and  sought  active  employment  in 
the  field,  and  looking  with  envy  upon  those  gaining  laurels 
for  themselves  and  shedding  lustre  upon  British  arms  in 
Portugal  and  Spain,  had  frequently  applied  to  Sir  James 
Craig  for  leave  of  absence.  He  had  absolute  assurance  too 
from  those  who  spoke  with  knowledge  and  authority,  that  his 
name  had  been  mentioned  at  the  Horse  Guards  in  such  a  way 
as  to  indicate  that  no  officer  of  his  rank  in  the  service  stood 
higher  in  the  estimation  of  the  Commander-in-Chief  and  his 
military  entourage. 

Sir  James  Craig,  however,  wrote  to  him  from  Quebec,  on 
the  4th  of  March,  1811,  to  say  that  though  far  from  being 
indifferent  to  forwarding  his  interests  and  his  wishes  for 
active  employment,  he  felt  that,  from  the  necessity  of  retiring 
from  Canada  himself,  owing  to  the  precarious  condition  of 
his  health  (which  shortly  after  resulted  in  his  death),  it  was 
indispensably  necessary  to  leave  this  country  in  the  best  state 
of  security  he  could,  and  that  under  existing  circumstances  he 
was  obliged  to  decline  Brock's  request  for  leave;  that  he 
regretted  extremely  the  disappointment  General  Brock  would 
thus  experience,  but  requested  him  to  do  him  the  honour  to 


MAJOR-GENERAL    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK,    K.B.  13 

accept,  as  a  legacy  and  as  a  mark  of  his  sincere  esteem  and 
regard,  his  favorite  charger,  "Alfred,"  satisfied  that  not  else- 
where in  America  could  he  procure  so  safe  and  excellent  a 
horse,  and  this  war-horse  met  the  fitting  fate  of  a  war-horse 
shortly  after  the  death  of  his  illustrious  owner,  as  we  will 
afterwards  see. 

At  the  close  of  the  year  His  Eoyal  Highness  the  Duke  of 


York  expressed  his  readiness  to  gratify  General  Brock's  service  in 
wishes  for  more  active  employment  in  Europe  should  he 
be  still  of  the  same  mind,  and  Sir  George  Prevost  was  author- 
ized to  replace  him  by  another  officer.  But  when  the  permis- 
sion reached  Canada  early  in  1812,  war  with  the  United 
States  was  evidently  near  at  hand,  and  Brock,  with  such  a 
prospect,  even  a  certainty,  and  with  all  the  instincts  of  a 
soldier,  was  retained  by  honour,  duty,  and  inclination,  in 
this  country. 

On  the  llth  June,  1811,  he  had  been  promoted  by  the  Appointed 
Prince  Kegent,  to  serve  from  that  day  as  a  Major-General 
the  staff  of  North  America.    Sir  James  Craig  had  left  on 
19th  of  the  same  month,  and  after  an  interregnum  of  nearly  upper°f 
three  months,  Sir  George  Prevost  arrived  at  Quebec  in  Sep-jo^ 
tember,  to  assume  the  Government  and  the  chief  command1811' 
of  the  forces  in  British  North  America.     I  fear  it  is  as  a 
writer  of  despatches,  disingenuous  at  that,  that  Sir  George 
Prevost  is  best  known  to  us. 

As  previously  stated,  Major-General  Brock  was  appointed  financially 
Administrator  of  Upper  Canada,  taking  over  the  office 
the  9th  October.     In  addition  to  his  pay  as  Officer 
manding  in  Upper  Canada  he  had  a  salary  of  £1,000  a 
as    Administrator,    but    to    add    to    the    other    embarrass- 
ments  with  which  he  now  had  to  contend,  at  the  very  time 
he  was  appointed,  he  became  involved  in  most  serious  mone- 
tary difficulties  through  the  failure  of  a  firm  of  London  bank- 
ers and  merchants  of  which  his  elder  brother,  Mr.  William 
Brock,    was    senior    partner.       Mr.    William    Brock    had 
advanced    his    brother    Isaac    at    different    times    £3,000 
for   the   purchase    of   his    commissions   in    the    49th   Eegi- 
ment;  but  being  then  in  affluent  circumstances  and  having 
no  children  of  his  own,  he  had  intended  the  money  as  a  gift 


14  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

to  a  favorite  and  most  promising  brother.  It  had,  however, 
been  charged  in  the  books  of  the  firm,  and  Major-General 
Brock  was  now  called  upon  by  the  creditors  to  repay  the 
amount.  He  was  a  man  of  generous  disposition,  dispensing 
somewhat  extensive  hospitality,  especially  of  recent  years, 
since  his  appointment  to  his  important  military  command  in 
Canada,  and  had  saved  nothing.  It  came  as  a  great  blow. 
The  high  position  to  which  he  had  just  been  elevated  neces- 
sitated considerable  outlay  to  keep  up  its  proper  dignity.  But 
Brock  was,  above  all  things,  a  man  of  the  most  scrupulous 
honour,  and  immediately  and  instinctively  determined  upon 
the  proper  course,  forwarding  a  power  of  attorney  to  London 
to  enable  his  "whole  official  salary  as  Lieutenant-Governor  to 
be  appropriated  towards  the  liquidation  of  the  debt,  though 
he  was  aware  that  it  would,  to  some  extent,  necessitate  a  loss 
of  popularity,  and,  that  people  unacquainted  with  the  cir- 
cumstances would  attribute  the  consequent  and  unavoidable 
frugality  of  his  establishment  to  motives  of  parsimony  and 
not  to  rectitude  of  principle  and  the  dictates  of  the  nicest  and 
most  chivalrous  sense  of  honour. 

Approach  of        But  events  were  hurrying  on  and  all  tending  in  the  direc- 
unprepared-  tion  of  war  with  our  neighbors,  who  were  evidently  bent  upon 

ness  of  9 1  * 

Government  ^'  ^  *s  unnecessarv  now  to  discuss  the  pretext  upon  which 
they  eventually  declared  it.  It  is  sufficient  to  state  that  with 
Great  Britain  the  war  was  purely  defensive.  She  fought  not 
for  new  conquests  or  to  establish  new  claims,  but  for  the  pro- 
tection of  her  colonies  and  the  maintenance  of  rights  which 
had  received  the  solemn  confirmation  of  time,  while  the  Cana- 
dians fought  for  the  protection  of  their  hearths  and  homes 
and  for  the  retention  of  those  institutions  which  were  inex- 
pressibly dear  to  them;  and  those  objects  were  completely 
secured ;  the  ratification  of  the  Treaty  of  Ghent  by  America 
was  a  tacit  abandonment  of  every  assumption  against  which 
the  Government  of  Britain  had  contended ;  while  Canada  lost 
not  one  foot  of  soil  and  Canadians  rejoiced  in  their  self- 
respect  and  their  connection  with  the  Mother  Land,  with  all 
which  that  implied. 

The  difficulties  which  now  confronted  General  Brock  and 
with  which  he  had  to  contend  and  overcome  as  best  he  could, 


MAJOR-GENERAL    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK,    K.B.  15 

were  sufficient  to  appal  a  heart  even  as  stout  and  to  tax  to  the 
utmost  a  mind  as  versatile  and  resourceful  as  his.  When 
we  calmly  consider  them  all  it  seems  nothing  short  of  marvel- 
lous, that  any  man  should  have  been  equal  to  circumstances 
so  adverse,  labour  so  incessant  and  arduous,  anxieties  so  great 
and  constant,  perplexities  and  complications  so  manifold,  and 
able  to  meet  and  overcome  them  all. 

Pressed  by  European  embroilments,  fighting  on  the  Con- 
tinent with  her  back  to  the  wall,  pouring  out  her  blood  and 
treasure  in  her  gigantic  struggle  with  Napoleon,  his  marshals 
and  his  legions,  Britain  was  naturally  desirous  of  avoiding 
war  with  the  United  States,  nor  could  its  Government,  failing 
to  recognize  any  sufficient  cause  or  justification  for  it,  be 
brought  to  recognize  and  understand  that  war  was  inevitable, 
that  the  American  President  and  Government  were  deter- 
mined upon  it,  and  only  waited  until  Britain's  embarrass- 
ments seemed  such  that  the  time  was  opportune  to  strike  the 
blow. 

In  May,  a  month  before  the  declaration  of  war,  Prevost 
was  informed  that  the  Government  apprehended  no  immedi- 
ate hostilities,  while  even  in  July,  Lord  Liverpool  wrote,  igi^UHome 
acknowledging  an  address  of  the  Legislature  of  Lower  Can-^°ppagedofS 
ada,  expressing  the  willingness  of  the  people  of  that  Province 
to  defend  their  country,  that  he  hoped  there  would  be  no 
necessity  for  the  sacrifices  which  so  willingly  would  be  made, 
directed  that  all  extraordinary  precautions  for  defence  should 
be  suspended,  and  that  the  arrangements  for  the  raising  of 
the  Glengarry  Kegiment  should  be  abandoned ;  while  further 
to  show  how  great  was  their  miscalculation  of  events,  the 
Duke  of  York,  as  Commander-in-Chief,  recommended  that 
the  41st  and  49th  Regiments,  then  stationed  in  Canada,  the 
latter  Brock's  own  corps,  brought  by  him  to  the  highest  state 
of  efficiency,  having  had  ten  years'  continuous  service  in  Can- 
ada, and  therefore  thoroughly  acquainted  and  acclimatized, 
should  return  to  England  and  be  replaced  by  one  of  the  for- 
eign regiments  (then  in  the  pay  and  service  of  the  British 
Government),  and  one  of  the  line. 

War  had  even  then  been  declared  and  an  American  army 
had  actually  landed  and  taken  post  in  Canada — temporarily, 


16  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

however,   for  they  had  not   reckoned  upon   Major-General 
Brock. 

prevostrge  Then,  too,  Sir  George  Prevost  was  a  positive  blight  upon 

SponlSm.  him-  He  was  upon  the  ground  and  knew,  or  should  have 
known,  the  circumstances,  the  position  of  affairs,  the  temper 
of  the  American  people,  and  the  intentions  of  their  Govern- 
ment, unless  wilfully  blind  to  all  the  signs  of  the  times,  or 
utterly  lacking  in  all  those  statesmanlike  and  military  quali- 
ties and  attributes  so  essential  to  the  dual  position  he  occupied 
as  Governor-General  of  Canada  and  Commander-in-Chief  of 
the  Forces. 

On  the  2nd  of  December,  1811,  General  Brock  wrote  him: 
"  I  cannot  conceal  from  your  Excellency  that  unless  a  strong 
regular  force  be  sent  to  this  Province,  to  animate  the  loyal 
and  overawe  the  disaffected,  nothing  effectual  can  be  ex- 
pected." Prevost  answered,  in  February,  that  he  could  send 
him  no  reinforcement  to  Upper  Canada,  adding  somewhat 
inconsequently,  "  Though  anxious  to  afford  you  every  effi- 
cient support  in  my  power." 

In  the  same  month  of  December  Brock  communicated  to 
him  his  plan  of  campaign,  urged  that  on  the  commencement 
of  war  active  operations  should  immediately  be  taken  against 
Detroit,  pointed  out  that  Michillimackinac  should  also  be 
attacked  and  taken,  and  had  the  sagacity  to  foresee  and  fore- 
tell that  an  overwhelming  force  would  enter  Canada,  or  at- 
tempt to  do  so,  by  crossing  the  Niagara  River,  and  that  the 
next  invasion  of  the  Province  would  take  place  from  Ogdens- 
burg,  with  a  view  to  the  descent  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  and  the 
attack  and  probable  capture  of  Montreal;  Prevost  replied 
recommending  precaution,  acknowledged  the  advantage  of 
striking  rather  than  awaiting  and  receiving  the  first  blow, 
but  gave  neither  encouragement  nor  assistance  to  Brock's  wise 
and  timely  suggestions.  He  derived  consolation  from  the 
opinion  conveyed  to  him  by  Mr.  Foster,  British  charge  d'af- 
faires at  Washington,  that  war  after  all  might  possibly  be 
avoided,  and  declared  to  Brock  that  it  warranted  him  in 
recommending  the  most  rigid  economy  in  carrying  on  the 
King's  service  and  in  avoiding  all  expense  that  was  not  abso- 
lutely necessary. 


MAJOR-GENERAL    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK,    K.B.  17 

Even  when  war  had  actually  been  declared,  writing  to 
Brock  on  the  10th  of  July,  1812,  he  held  that  offensive  meas- 
ures should  not  be  speedily  adopted  and  ventured  upon  the 
prediction  that  the  attempt  of  the  Americans  on  the  Province 
would  be  but  feeble,  while  two  days  afterwards  Hull  began 
the  invasion  of  Canada  (time  and  again  to  be  renewed  with 
unceasing  vigour  and  larger  force),  at  the  head  of  2,500  men 
and,  as  President  Madison  somewhat  inaptly  expressed  it, 
"  With  the  prospect  of  easy  and  victorious  progress."  Here 
again  the  President  failed  to  take  Major-General  Brock  into 
his  calculations,  or  was  unaware  of  the  vigour  with  which  that 
enterprising  officer  carried  on  his  operations. 

But  it  was  not  only  the  fact  that  the  British  Government  Traitors 

•  IIT-T'-IOI  ii-i  within  the 

was  unprepared  for  war  with  the  United  States  and  had  gates, 
taken  no  precautions  against  it,  and  the  supineness  of  Sir 
George  Prevost,  who  disapproved  of  all  energetic  measures, 
that  caused  General  Brock  so  much  embarrassment,  anxiety, 
care  and  trouble,  in  the  grave  emergency  which  he  was  now 
called  upon  to  face. 

He  had  also  to  contend  with  traitors  within  his  gates; 
internal  disaffection,  disloyalty,  treason  and  treachery  were 
rampant  in  many  parts  of  the  Province  of  Upper  Canada. 

A  large  proportion  of  its  population  even  then  were  long 
known  as  "  Proclamation  men,"  Yankee  settlers,  who  had 
taken  advantage  of  Governor  Simcoe's  liberal  system  of  land 
grants,  and  had  come  to  Canada  from  purely  mercenary 
motives,  bringing  with  them  their  republican  sentiments  and 
anti-British  proclivities,  amounting  in  many  instances  to 
hatred. 

This  disloyal  element  was  much  more  extensive  than  is 
now  generally  known  or  supposed,  and  came  nigh  to  the  un- 
doing of  the  country.  Brock's  letters  and  despatches  are 
replete  with  reference  to  the  anxiety  which  their  machinations 
and  ill-concealed  hostility  caused  him.  After  war  had  broken 
out  he  was  obliged  to  issue  a  proclamation  ordering  all  per- 
sons suspected  of  traitorous  intercourse  with  the  enemy  to  be 
apprehended  and  treated  according  to  law ;  those  who  had  not 
taken  the  oath  of  allegiance  were  ordered  to  do  so  or  leave 
the  Province.  Many  were  sent  out  of  the  country,  large 
numbers  left  of  their  own  accord ;  those  who  refused  the  oath 


18  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

or  to  take  up  arms  to  defend  the  country  and  remained  in 
the  Province  after  a  given  date,  were  declared  to  be  enemies 
and  spies,  and  treated  accordingly;  a  large  number  of  this 
disloyal  element  were  arrested  and  imprisoned  early  in  the 
war,  as  on  the  day  of  the  battle  of  Queenston,  October-  13th, 
1812,  the  jail  and  courthouse  at  Niagara  as  well  as  the  block- 
house at  Fort  George  were  filled  with  political  prisoners,  over 
300  aliens  and  traitors  being  in  custody,  some  of  whom  were 
tried  and  sentenced  to  death  during  the  war,  and  others  sent 
to  Quebec  for  imprisonment;  indeed,  even  the  militia  were 
in  some  parts  tampered  with  and  disaffected.  On  the  3rd  of 
August,  Brock  was  compelled  to  declare  to  his  Executive 
Council  that  "  the  enemy  had  invaded  and  taken  post  in  the 
Western  district,  the  militia  in  a  perfect  state  of  insubordina- 
tion had  withdrawn  from  the  ranks  on  active  service,  had 
insulted  their  officers  and  some,  not  immediately  embodied, 
had  manifested,  in  many  instances,  a  treasonable  spirit  of 
mutiny  and  disaffection,  that  in  the  Western  and  London  dis- 
tricts several  persons  had  negotiated  with  the  enemy's  com- 
mander, hailing  his  arrival  and  pledging  their  support,  while 
the  Indians  on  the  Grand  River  had  been  tampered  with,  had 
withdrawn  from  their  voluntary  service  and  declared  for  a 
neutrality." 

inisthealty  ^is  disloyal  element,  too,  was  not  without  representation 

Legislature.  even  jn  ^  Legislature  of  the  Province,  and  there  they 
endeavored  to  thwart  all  those  prompt  and  effective  measures 
which  in  the  crisis  were  essential  to  the  preservation  of  the 
country  and  were  submitted  to  and  urged  upon  it  by  Brock 
as  Administrator.  "  The  many  doubtful  characters  in  the 
militia,"  'he  stated  in  one  of  his  despatches,  "  made  me 
anxious  to  introduce  the  oath  of  abjuration  into  the  bill.  It 
was  lost  by  the  casting  vote  of  the  chairman.  The  great 
influence  which  the  numerous  settlers  from  the  United  States 
possess  over  the  decisions  of  the  Lower  House  is  truly  alarm- 
ing and  ought  immediately  by  every  practicable  means  to  be 
diminished."  The  bill  for  the  suspension  of  the  Habeas 
Corpus  Act  was  also  defeated  in  the  session  which  opened 
on  the  4th  of  February,  1812.  The  leaders  of  this  disloyal 
faction  in  the  Legislature  were  three  men  whose  names  should 
go  down  to  posterity  with  infamy:  Joseph  Willcocks,  the 


MAJOR-GENERAL    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK,    K.B.  19 

leader  of  the  Opposition;  Benjamin  Mallory  and  Abraham 
Markle.  At  the  next  session  Willcocks  and  Markle,  who  were 
still  members,  were  expelled  from  the  House  "  for  their  dis- 
loyal and  infamous  conduct/'  Mallory  had  not  been  re- 
elected  in  1812.  Willcocks  was  killed  at  Fort  Erie  in  1814, 
in  command  of  a  regiment  in  the  American  army;  Mallory 
served  throughout  the  war  as  major  in  the  same  regiment. 

After  Hull  had  invaded  the  Province.  Brock  summoned  Legislature 

summoned 

the  Legislature  and  on  the  27th  of  July  opened  an  extra  ses- upon  deciar- 

•  ationofwar, 

sion.     In  his  speech  he  stated     a  lew  traitors  have  a lreadyand  proves 

J  recalcitrant. 

joined  the  enemy;  have  been  suffered  to  come  into  the  country 
with  impunity  and  have  been  harboured  and  concealed  in  the 
interior.  To  protect  and  defend  the  loyal  inhabitants  from 
their  machinations  is  an  object  worthy  of  your  most  serious 
deliberation." 

But  notwithstanding  that  the  state  of  the  country  required 
urgent  and  decisive  measures,  many  members  of  the  House 
of  Assembly,  under  the  baneful  influence  of  the  disloyal  ele- 
ment, were  seized  with  apprehension  and  endeavored  to  avoid 
incurring  the  indignation  of  the  enemy.  They  again  refused 
to  repeal  or  suspend  the  Habeas  Corpus  Act,  and  in  conse- 
quence of  these  difficulties,  Brock,  knowing  that  General 
Hull's  emissaries  throughout  the  country  were  both  numerous 
and  active,  called  together  his  Executive  Council.  So  serious 
and  grave  were  the  circumstances  in  which  he  felt  himself 
placed,  and  feeling  that  but  little  could  be  expected  from  ,# 
prolonged  session,  he  asked  his  constitutional  advisers  whether 
it  would  not  be  expedient  to  prorogue  the  Legislature  and 
proclaim  martial  law.  The  Council  adjourned  until  the  next 
day,  the  4th  of  August,  for  deliberation,  and  then  unani- 
mously adopted  the  legal  opinion  of  Attorney-General  Mac- 
donell,  and  gave  it  as  their  advice  that  under  the  circum- 
stances of  the  Province,  the  House  of  Assembly  should  be 
prorogued  and  that  the  General  should  proclaim  and  exercise 
martial  law  under  authority  of  his  commission  from  the  King. 
Accordingly  on  the  5th,  Brock  prorogued  the  House  and 
martial  law  prevailed. 

This  brought  the  traitors  to  time ;  large  numbers  immedi- 
ately decamped  to  the  States,  among  them  Willcocks,  Mallory 


ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 


Overwhelm- 
ing odds 
against  him. 
Militia 
without 
arms  or 
clothes. 


Proclama- 
tion of 
martial 
law  the 
turning- 
point. 


and  Markle;  the  atmosphere  was  cleared  and  Brock  became 
master  of  the  situation.  But  what  a  situation  I 

Now  let  us  consider  for  a  moment  Brock's  position.  For 
the  defence  of  this  Province  his  entire  forces  consisted,  all 
told,  regulars  and  militia,  of  1,500  men. 

In  Lower  Canada  Sir  George  Prevost  had  ahout  3,000 
regular  troops.  The  total  number  of  men  capable  of  bearing 
arms  in  Upper  Canada  was  about  11,000,  the  proportion 
available  for  constant,  active  service  was  4,000. 

Against  this,  at  the  beginning  of  1812,  the  United  States 
had  a  regular  army  of  5,500  men.  On  the  llth  of  January, 
1812,  five  months  before  the  declaration  of  war,  an  act  of 
Congress  was  passed  for  raising  25,000  men  for  five  years. 
In  the  next  month  an  act  was  passed  to  organize  50,000  vol- 
unteers, and  in  April,  100,000  militia  were  called  into  active 
service.  During  the  whole  war  the  United  States'  regular 
army  amounted  to  about  30,000.  The  whole  militia  force 
raised  during  the  war  was  471,622,  making  a  grand  total  of 
over  half  a  million  men  engaged  in  the  effort  to  conquer  Pro- 
vinces containing  a  total  population  of  300,000. 

Another  great  difficulty  was  the  lack  of  military  stores 
and  supplies ;  Brock  was  obliged  to  ask  the  militia  to  clothe 
themselves;  many  of  them  were  actually  drilling  in  their 
naked  feet.  He  was  without  a  military  chest,  without  money 
to  buy  provisions,  blankets,  or  shoes.  He  had  to  borrow  the 
money  to  fit  out  the  expedition  to  Detroit.  The  militia  were 
practically  without  arms  until  the  capture  of  Detroit  placed 
at  his  disposal  2,500  muskets  of  General  Hull's  army,  and 
there  he  also  captured  a  number  of  pieces  of  artillery  which 
were  of  service  in  subsequent  operations. 

The  proclamation  of  martial  law  was  the  turning-point; 
indeed  it  may  be  said  to  have  been  the  salvation  of  the  Pro- 
vince. It  would  seem  probable  that  Brock's  intention  to 
proclaim  it  had  become  known  to  the  Legislature,  for  on  the 
very  day  of  prorogation  the  loyal  party  in  the  House  suc- 
ceeded in  carrying  a  most  spirited  and  patriotic  address  in 
which  they  called  upon  the  people  of  Upper  Canada  to  deem 
no  sacrifice  too  costly  which  secured  to  them  their  happy  con- 
stitution. 


MAJOR-GENERAL    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK,    K.B.  21 

The  change  in  the  prospects  within  a  few  days  was  almost  hfs  cam-°n 
miraculous.     The  stirring  address  of  the  House  of  Assembly  caiftu're  of 
went  forth  to  the  people  of  the  Province  on  the  5th  of  August,  steteoV""1 
and  on  the  6th  Brock  left  for  Amherstburg  accompanied  byMichigan> 
Attorney-General  Macdonell,  who  now  became  his  Military 
Secretary  and  Provincial  aide-de-camp.    They  had  with  them 
some  40  regular  soldiers  and  260  militia. 

Hostilities  had  actually  commenced  on  the  12th  of  July, 
when  General  Hull  crossed  the  Detroit  Eiver  to  Sandwich, 
invading  the  Province  with  an  army  of  2,500  men  and  a 
blood-curdling  proclamation.  This  f ulmination  was  promptly 
answered  by  General  Brock.  The  two  productions  might 
well  be  placed  in  parallel  columns  so  that  the  vulgarity  and 
fanfarronade  of  the  one  and  the  dignified  and  resolute  tone 
of  the  other  might  be  fully  understood  and  appreciated. 

General  Hull  had  the  insolence  to  announce  to  the  Cana- 
dian people  that  "  he  was  in  possession  of  their  country,"  to 
inform  them  that  an  ocean  and  wilderness  isolated  them  from 
Great  Britain,  "  whose  tyranny  he  knew  they  felt,"  that  his 
army  was  ready  and  anxious  to  release  them  from  oppression, 
that  they  must  choose  between  liberty  and  security  as  offered 
by  the  United  States,  and  war  and  annihilation,  the  penalty 
of  refusal. 

Brock,  in  his  counter-manifesto,  properly  characterized 
Hull's  invitation  to  Canadians  to  seek  protection  from  Bri- 
tain under  the  flag  of  the  United  States  as  an  insult.  He 
cited  the  advantages  of  British  connection  and  warned  our 
people  that  secession  meant  the  restitution  of  Canada  to 
France,  which  was  the  price  to  be  paid  by  America  to  that 
country  for  the  aid  given  to  the  revolting  colonies  during 
the  Revolutionary  War.  He  reminded  them  of  the  constancy 
of  their  fathers,  and  urged  upon  them  to  repel  the  invaders 
and  thus  give  their  children  no  cause  to  reproach  them  with 
sacrificing  the  richest  inheritance  upon  earth,  participation 
in  the  name,  character  and  freedom  of  Britons. 

Upon  his  arrival  at  Amherstburg,  Brock,  for  the  first 
time,  met  Tecumseh,  who  was  to  prove  such  an  invaluable 
ally,  and  soon  so  nobly  to  die !  At  the  conclusion  of  their 
interview,  the  great  Indian  showed  his  estimate  and  apprecia- 


22  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

tion  of  him  when  he  turned  to  his  warriors  and  declared  to 
them,  "  This  is  a  man !" 

Nor  was  General  Brock  long  in  determining  on  his  course. 
The  Americans  had  evacuated  Amherstburg  and  retired  to 
their  own  side  of  the  river,  to  Detroit,  which  was  strongly 
fortified.  His  entire  force  now  consisted  of  330  regulars, 
400  militia,  and  600  Indians — Sioux,  Wyandots  and  Daco- 
tahs.  "  My  force/'  he  wrote  to  General  Hull,  "  warrants  my 
demanding  the  immediate  surrender  of  Fort  Detroit,"  and 
knowing  Hull's  dread  of  the  Indians  he  warned  him  that 
they  might  possibly  get  beyond  his  control.  Colonel  Mac- 
donell  and  Captain  Glegg  carried  this  summons  across  the 
river  under  a  flag  of  truce,  and  shortly  returned  with  the 
assurance  from  General  Hull  that  "  he  was  prepared  to  meet 
any  force  brought  against  him  and  accept  any  consequences." 
Brock  thereupon  issued  orders  to  cross  the  river  at  dawn, 
while  the  Indians  crossed  under  cover  of  the  night.  Upon 
landing,  Brock  mustered  his  men,  deploying  the  Indians  in 
the  shelter  of  the  woods,  skirmishing  to  effect  a  flank  move- 
ment, and  advanced  to  the  attack,  while  the  battery  of  Sand- 
wich threw  a  few  shells  into  the  American  fort. 

It  seems  almost  incredible,  particularly  when  we  think 
of  the  proclamation !  With  the  odds  about  ten  to  one  in  his 
favour,  Hull's  heart  now  failed  him  when  he  saw  the  advance 
of  the  British,  and  their  field  pieces  trained  upon  the  fort; 
the  gunners  awaited  but  the  final  command,  when  an  officer 
bearing  a  white  flag  emerged  from  the  fort,  while  a  boat  with 
another  flag  of  truce  was  seen  crossing  the  river  to  the  Sand- 
wich battery.  Macdonell  and  Glegg  galloped  out  to  meet  the 
messenger  and  returned  with  a  despatch  from  Hull  to  General 
Brock,  as  follows :  "  The  object  of  the  flag  which  crossed 
the  river  was  to  propose  a  cessation  of  hostilities  for  an  hour, 
for  the  purpose  of  entering  into  negotiations  for  the  surrender 
of  Detroit." 

Again  Macdonell  and  Glegg  rode  out  and  returned  with 
the  terms  of  capitulation  signed  by  General  Hull. 

One  general  officer  and  3,500  men  of  all  ranks,  who  were 
to  have  conquered  Canada,  surrendered  as  prisoners  of  war, 
while  with  them  were  handed  over  2,500  stand  of  arms,  33 
pieces  of  cannon,  the  Adams  brig  of  war,  stores,  and  muni- 


MAJOR-GENERAL    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK,    K.B.  23 

tions  of  war  to  the  value  of  £40,000,  and  Detroit  and  59,700 
square  miles  of  American  territory — the  whole  State  of 
Michigan — passed  into  the  possession  of  General  Brock. 

Brock  believed  that  it  was  by  vigour  in  our  operations 
that  the  war  was  to  be  won. 

In  nineteen  days  he  had  met  and  prorogued  the  Legisla- 
ture, transported  his  small  force  300  miles,  200  of  which 
was  by  open  boat,  captured  an  army  three  times  his  strength, 
strongly  entrenched  in  a  well-protected  fort,  and  60,000 
square  miles  of  that  enemy's  territory. 

By  a  strange  coincidence  his  despatches  with  the  colours 
he  had  taken  reached  London  on  the  morning  of  the  5th  of 
October,  the  anniversary  of  his  birth.  The  despatches  were 
immediately  published  in  a  "  Gazette  Extraordinary  "  and 
the  clangour  of  bells  and  the  booming  of  guns  announced  his 
victory.  The  Prince  Kegent  expressed  his  appreciation  of 
Brock's  "  able,  judicious  and  decisive  conduct  "  and  bestowed 
upon  him  an  extra  Knighthood  of  the  Order  of  the  Bath  in 
consideration  "  of  all  the  difficulties  with  which  he  was  sur- 
rounded during  the  invasion  of  the  Province  and  the  singular 
judgment,  firmness,  skill  and  courage  with  which  he  sur- 
mounted them  so  effectually. " 

But  he  never  saw  the  insignia  of  his  rank  or  learnt  of  the 
Sovereign's  approbation.  Ere  that  reached  Canada,  he  had 
fought  his  last  fight.  The  Battle  of  Queenston  Heights  was 
won,  and  all  that  was  mortal  of  Sir  Isaac  Brock  lay  under 
a  cavalier  bastion  in  Fort  George. 

Having  brought  affairs  to  so  satisfactory  a  conclusion  ^  armistice 
this  quarter,  and  completed  all  necessary  arrangements, 
lost  not  a  moment  in  returning  to  York  to  carry  on  that  plan 
of  campaign  upon  which  he  had  determined.  Quite  apart, 
however,  from  the  high  considerations  of  public  duty  by  which 
he  was  always  animated,  there  may  have  been  another  reason 
why  he  and  his  Attorney-General,  now  associated  with  him 
in  his  capacity  as  military  secretary  and  aide-de-camp,  may 
have  been  desirous  of  reporting  themselves  at  York.  Both 
were  young,  Brock  in  the  prime  of  manhood,  being  in  his 
forty-fourth  year,  and  the  other  but  twenty-seven  years  of  age ; 
both  were  shortly  to  be  married  to  young  ladies  then  resident 
at  York,  General  Brock  to  Miss  Sophia  Shaw,  daughter  of 


24  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

Major-General  Aeneas  Shaw,  Adjutant-General  of  Militia, 
and  amongst  the  many  congratulations  and  felicitations  which 
were  showered  upon  him  there  were  those  from  one  especially 
which  would  necessarily  and  naturally  be  essentially  dear 
and  welcome  to  him.  It  was  the  fate  of  both  these  brave 
and  ardent  men,  however, 

"  To  change  love's  bridal  wreath, 
For  laurels  from  the  hand  of  death." 

His  intention  was  to  proceed  forthwith  to  Kingston  and 
from  thence  to  attack  and  destroy  the  American  naval  arsenal 
at  Sackett's  Harbour  on  Lake  Ontario,  and  that  accomplished, 
to  sweep  the  whole  American  frontier  from  Sandusky  at  the 
head  of  Lake  Erie  to  St.  Eegis  on  the  Kiver  St.  Lawrence. 
But  when  crossing  Lake  Erie,  he  was  met  with  the  astounding 
and  most  distasteful  and  unwelcome  news  that  Sir  George 
Prevost  had  entered  into  an  armistice  with  the  American 
General,  Dearborn.  His  mortification  at  this  intelligence, 
which  paralyzed  all  his  plans,  and  went  far  to  nullify  all  the 
advantages  which  his  energy  and  enterprise  had  already 
accomplished,  can  easily  be  conceived.  To  make  matters 
worse,  General  Sheaffe,  in  command  at  Fort  George  while 
Brock  was  in  the  west,  had  acceded  to  General  Dearborn's 
demand  that  the  freedom  of  the  lakes  and  rivers  should  be 
extended  to  the  United  States  Government  during  the  armis- 
tice, an  opportunity  of  which  the  Americans  did  not  fail  to 
avail  themselves  to  bring  up  reinforcements,  provisions  and 
all  the  necessary  munitions  of  war,  together  with  400  boats 
and  batteaux  from  Ogdensburg  and  other  points  to  Lewiston, 
with  a  view  to  their  contemplated  attack  on  the  Niagara  fron- 
tier, which  shortly  took  place  at  Queenston.  General  Sheaffe's 
extraordinary  conduct  on  this  occasion  was  again  to  be  re- 
peated on  the  very  afternoon  when  they  were  there  defeated ; 
instead  of  following  up  the  victory  which  Brock's  wise  pre- 
cautions and  glorious  example  had  made  possible,  he  agreed 
to  another  armistice. 

Had  the  destruction  of  Sackett's  Harbour,  as  Brock  had 
determined  upon,  been  then  accomplished,  the  Americans 
could  not  have  built  and  equipped  the  fleet  which  subsequently 
gave  them  the  ascendancy  on  Lake  Ontario,  and  enabled  them 


MAJOR-GENERAL    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK,    K.B.  25 

twice  in  1813  to  capture  the  capital  of  Upper  Canada.  The 
project,  however,  had  to  be  relinquished  by  express  orders 
from  the  Commander-in-Chief.  Prevost,  indeed,  in  the  fol- 
lowing year,  endeavored  himself  to  accomplish  what  he  had 
forbidden  to  Brock,  and  his  ignoble  fiasco  at  Sackett's  Har- 
bour was  only  to  be  equalled,  even  outdone,  by  his  disgrace- 
ful failure  at  Plattsburg,  where  brave  men  broke  their  swords 
in  the  anguish  of  defeat,  and  for  which  he  was  called  upon 
eventually  to  face  court-martial,  which  he  only  escaped  by 
the  fortunate  intervention  of  death  occurring  on  the  very  eve 
of  the  assembly  of  the  court  which  was  to  meet  to  try  the 
charges  Sir  James  Yeo  had  preferred  against  him.  When  we 
contrast  the  methods  and  the  character  and  the  fate  of  Sir 
Isaac  Brock  and  Sir  George  Prevost  we  are  perforce  driven 
to  a  realization  of  the  fact  that  men  "  are  cast  in  different 
moulds,  if  not  made  of  different  clay." 

But  we  are  nearing  the  end  of  Brock's  career — one  more  Battle  of 

«    ,  ,          ,  ,  Queenston 

fight  and  we  have  done.  Heights. 

By  the  middle  of  October,  the  Americans  had  assembled  Brock, 
on  the  Niagara  frontier  an  army  of  6,300  men,  of  which 
force  3,170  were  at  Lewiston  under  the  command  of  General 
Van  Rensselaer — with  them  he  modestly  announced  to  his 
government  his  intention  "  to  cross  the  river  in  the  rear  of 
Fort  George,  take  it  by  storm,  carry  the  heights  of  Queenston, 
destroy  the  British  ships  at  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara  Kiver, 
leave  Brock  no  rallying  point,  appal  the  minds  of  the  Cana- 
dians, and  wipe  away  the  past  disgrace." 

To  oppose  this  somewhat  extensive  programme  General 
Brock  had  part  of  the  41st  and  49th  Eegiments,  a  few  com- 
panies of  militia  and  about  300  Indians,  in  all  about  1,500 
men,  dispersed,  however,  at  various  points  between  Fort  Erie 
and  Fort  George,  so  that  only  a  small  number  was  quickly 
available  at  any  one  point. 

He  knew  that  the  attack  was  imminent,  and  with  unwearied 
diligence  he  watched  the  movements  of  the  enemy.  During 
the  night  of  the  12th  October  their  troops  were  concentrated 
and  embarked  from  Lewiston  under  cover  of  a  battery  which 
completely  commanded  the  opposite  shore.  Suspecting  the 
invasion,  though  not,  of  course,  knowing  the  exact  point  at 
which  it  would  take  place,  General  Brock  had  that  evening 


26  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

called  together  his  staff  officers  and  given  to  each  the  neces- 
sary and  final  instructions.  Before  the  break  of  day  on  the 
fatal  13th,  hearing  the  cannonade  which  announced  their 
landing  on  Canadian  soil,  he  hastily  dressed  himself,  and 
calling  for  his  charger  "Alfred,"  he  galloped  off,  followed 
closely  by  Colonel  Macdonell  and  Captain  Glegg,  his  aides- 
de-camp. 

His  first  impression  is  said  to  have  been  that  the  attack 
indicated  by  the  firing  was  only  a  feint  to  draw  the  garrison 
from  Fort  George,  and  that  an  American  force  lay  concealed 
in  boats  around  the  point  on  which  Fort  Niagara  stands, 
ready  to  cross  over  as  soon  as  they  had  succeeded.  He,  there- 
fore, determined  to  ascertain  personally  the  nature  and  extent 
of  the  attack  ere  he  withdrew  the  garrison,  and  with  this  in 
view  he  galloped  eagerly  to  the  scene  of  action,  stopping  for 
a  moment  only,  and  without  dismounting,  at  the  residence 
of  Captain  John  Powell,  to  take  a  cup  of  coffee,  which  was 
brought  to  him  by  Miss  Sophia  Shaw,  his  fiancee,  who  never 
again  was  to  see  the  gallant  man  who  loved  her.  Hastily 
pushing  on,  he  was  met  by  Lieut.  S.  P.  Jarvis,  of  the  York 
Militia,  who  was  riding  so  furiously  that  he  could  not  check 
his  horse,  but  shouted  as  he  flew  by,  "  The  Americans  are 
crossing  the  river  in  force,  sir."  Jarvis  wheeled  and  overtook 
the  General,  who,  without  reining  up,  slackened  his  speed 
sufficiently  to  tell  the  rider  to  hurry  on  to  Fort  George  and 
order  General  Sheaffe  to  bring  up  his  entire  reserve,  including 
Brant's  Indians,  leaving  Brigade-Major  Evans  with  sufficient 
artillery  to  batter  Fort  Niagara.  He  passed  with  his  two 
aides  up  the  hill  at  full  speed  in  front  of  the  light  company, 
under  a  heavy  fire  of  artillery  and  musketry  from  the  Ameri- 
can shore.  On  reaching  the  18-pounder  battery  at  the  top 
of  the  hill  they  dismounted  and  took  a  view  of  passing  events, 
but  in  a  few  minutes  firing  was  heard  which  proceeded  from 
a  strong  detachment  of  American  regulars  under  Captain 
Wool,  who  had  succeeded  in  gaining  the  crest  of  the  heights 
in  rear  of  the  battery,  by  a  fisherman's  path  up  the  precipitous 
rocks,  which  having  been  reported  as  impassible,  was  not 
guarded.  These  men  charged  down  upon  them,  and  Brock, 
with  his  aides,  and  the  twelve  men  stationed  in  the  battery, 
after  spiking  the  gun,  were  obliged  hastily  to  retire.  On 


MA  JOB-GENERAL    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK,    K.B.  27 

regaining  the  bottom  of  the  slope  he  sent  Captain  Derenzy,  of 
the  41st,  with  an  urgent  message  to  General  Sheaffe  to  hasten 
the  advance  of  the  battalion  companies  of  the  41st  and  the 
flank  companies  of  the  militia  and  to  join  him  without  delay. 
Mounting  his  horse  he  galloped  to  the  far  end  of  the  village 
where  he  held  a  hurried  conversation  with  the  few  officers 
present,  and  despatched  Macdonell  to  Vrooman's  to  bring  up 
Heward's  company  of  the  York  Militia,  sending  Captain 
Glegg  to  order  Captain  Dennis  with  the  light  company  of 
the  49th,  and  Chisholm's  company  of  the  York  Militia,  and 
Captain  Williams  with  his  detachment  to  join  him.  When 
they  arrived  he  took  command  with  a  view  to  the  re-taking 
of  the  redan,  satisfied  that  to  wait  for  the  arrival  of  the  rein- 
forcements under  Sheaffe  would  but  make  the  task  more 
difficult,  as  it  would  enable  the  enemy  to  establish  themselves 
in  force,  drill  out  the  spiked  gun  and  turn  it  upon  his  men. 
Under  a  heavy  fire  of  musketry  which  did  considerable  execu- 
tion they  breasted  the  heights,  Brock  dismounting,  and  hand- 
ing his  horse  to  an  orderly,  placed  himself  at  the  head  of  his 
men,  who,  with  the  support  which  Macdonell  brought  up, 
numbered  less  than  190,  with  which  he  had  to  dislodge  an 
enemy  strongly  entrenched  and  numbering  upwards  of  500, 
of  whom  300  were  regulars.  As  they  advanced  in  this  charge 
up  the  hill,  Brock,  conspicuous  from  his  dress,  his  towering 
height,  his  position  at  the  head  of  his  men  and  the  enthusiasm 
with  which  he  animated  his  little  band,  was  soon  singled  out 
by  the  American  riflemen ;  a  deflected  bullet  struck  the  wrist 
of  his  sword-arm,  but  he  paid  no  attention  to  it,  still  urging 
on  his  men.  They  were  now  within  fifty  yards  of  the  redan 
above  them.  He  was  calling  to  those  nearest  him  to  hold 
their  fire  for  a  moment,  to  prepare  to  rush  the  enemy  and 
use  their  bayonets,  when  from  a  thorn  thicket,  an  Ohio  scout, 
Wilklow  by  name,  singled  him  out,  and  taking  deliberate  aim, 
fired  at  him.  The  bullet  entered  his  right  breast,  tore  through  Death  of 
his  body,  leaving  a  gaping  wound.  As  he  sank  to  the  ground  Brock, 
he  begged  that  his  fall  might  not  be  noticed,  as  it  would  dis- 
organize his  men,  and  thus  he -nobly  died,  with  his  face  to 
the  foe. 

Perhaps  it  is  better  that  I  should  now  give  Mr.  Walter 
Nursey's  account  of  what  immediately  followed,  rather  than 
my  own: 


28  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

"After    he   fell    the   handful    of    men    who   were    with 

him,  overcome  by  his  tragic  end,  overwhelmed  by  superior 

numbers  and  a  hurricane  of  bullets  and  buckshot,  wavered 

coi.  Mac-     and  then  fell  back  and  retreated  to  Queenston  Village.    Here, 

donell  leads  ^ 

forlorn  hope.  a})0llt  two  hours  after,  Colonel  Macdonell  collected  and  re- 
formed the  scattered  units,  and  made  another  bold  dash  to 
re-scale  the  heights  and  take  the  redan.  With  the  cry  of 
1  Kevenge  the  General !'  from  the  men  of  his  old  regiment, 
the  49th,  Macdonell  on  Brock's  charger,  '  Alfred,'  led  the 
forlorn  attack,  supported  by  Dennis.  At  the  same  moment, 
Williams,  with  his  detachment,  emerged  from  the  thicket; 
the  two  detachments  then  combined,  and  Macdonell  ordering 
a  general  advance,  they  once  more  breasted  the  ascent.  The 
enemy,  over  400  strong,  but  without  proper  formation,  fired 
an  independent  volley  at  the  British  as  they  approached  to 
within  thirty  yards  of  the  redoubt.  This  was  responded  to 
with  vigour,  and  grenadiers  and  volunteers  in  response  to 
Macdonell's  repeated  calls,  charged  fiercely  on  Wool's  men, 
now  huddled  in  disorder  around  the  18-pounder.  Some  of 
them  started  to  run  toward  the  river  bank.  One  American 
officer,  Ogilvie  by  name,  of  the  13th  Regiment,  thinking  the 
situation  hopeless,  raised  his  handkerchief  on  his  sword- 
point  in  token  of  surrender,  when  Wool,  a  brave  soldier,  tore 
it  down,  and  a  company  of  United  States  infantry  coming  up 
at  that  moment  to  his  assistance  he  rallied  his  men. 
'  "  ^he  momentary  advantage  gained  by  Macdonell's  small 
band  of  heroes  was  lost,  and  in  the  exchange  of  shots  that 
followed,  Macdonell's  horse,  Brock's  charger,  t  Alfred,'  was 
killed  under  him,  while  he — his  uniform  torn  with  bullets — 
was  thrown  from  the  saddle  as  the  animal  plunged  in  its 
death  struggle,  receiving  several  ghastly  bullet  wounds  from 
which  he  died  the  following  day,  after  enduring  much  agony. 
Williams,  a  moment  later,  fell,  desperately  wounded.  Dennis, 
suffering  from  a  severe  wound  in  the  head,  at  first  refused  to 
quit  the  field,  but  Cameron,  having  removed  the  sorely- 
stricken  Macdonell,  and  Williams  having  recovered  conscious- 
ness, the  dispirited  men  fell  back  and,  retreating  down  the 
mountain,  retired  upon  Vrooman's  battery.  Here  they  waited 
unmolested,  until  two  in  the  afternoon,  for  reinforcements 
from  Fort  George.  The  fight,  though  short,  had  been  furious 


MAJOR-GENERAL    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK,    K.B.  2 

and  deadly;  Americans  and  British  alike  were  glad  to  take 
breath. 

"  Meanwhile,  unobserved,  young  Brant,  with  120  Mohawk  Indians 
Indians,  had  scaled  the  mountain  east  of  St.  Davids,  outflank- mountain 

east  of 

ing  the  Americans,  and  hemmed  them  in  until  Captain  Der-st-  Davids, 
enzy,  of  the  41st,  and  Holcroft,  of  the  artillery,  arrived  with 
the  car  brigade  from  Fort  George,  and  trained  two  field- 
pieces  and  a  Howitzer  upon  the  landing.  Merritt,  with  a 
troop  of  mounted  infantry  at  the  same  time  reached  the  vil- 
lage by  the  Queenston  road.  This  movement,  which  was  a 
ruse,  deceived  the  enemy,  who  at  once  disposed  his  troops  in 
readiness  for  an  attack  from  this  quarter. 

"  The  American  commander  was  ignorant  of  the  fact  thatArrivalof 
General  Sheaffe,  with  four  companies  of  the  41st,  300  strong,  Sneaffe  as 

.  ="  instructed 

the  same  number  01  militia  and  a  company  of  negro  troops  by  Brock, 
from  Niagara,  refugee  slaves  from  the  United  States,  was  at 
that  moment  approaching  in  rear  of  the  Indians.  The  British 
advanced  in  crescent  shaped  formation,  hidden  by  mountain 
and  bush,  and  were  shortly  joined  by  a  few  more  regulars  and 
by  two  flank  companies  of  the  2nd  Regiment  of  militia  from 
Chippewa — indeed  many  persons  of  all  ranks  of  life,  even 
veterans  exempt  by  age,  seized  their  muskets  and  joined  the 
column  to  repel  the  invaders.  The  British  of  all  ranks  num- 
bered less  than  1,000  men. 

"  The  United  States  troops,  which  had  been  heavily  rein- 
forced, consisted  of  about  1,000  fighting  men,  on  and  about 
the  mountain.  Their  number  was  supplemented  from  time 
to  time,  by  fresh  arrivals  from  Lewiston,  encouraged  when 
they  saw  the  American  flag  planted  on  the  redan;  nearly 
all  the  new  arrivals  were  regulars.  Colonel  Winfield  Scott, 
of  Mexican  fame,  a  tried  soldier,  six  foot  four  in  his  stockings, 
was  now  in  command,  supported  by  a  second  field  officer,  and 
many  sharpshooters.  Van  Rensselaer,  narrowly  escaping 
capture,  had  retreated  by  boat  to  Lewiston,  nominally  to  bring 
over  more  troops.  Finding  the  conditions  unfavourable,  he 
did  not  do  so,  but  sent  over  General  Wadsworth,  as  a  vicar- 
ious sacrifice,  to  take  command.  The  gun  in  the  redan  had 
been  unspiked  and  the  summit  strongly  entrenched,  but  as 
Scott's  men  betrayed  strange  lukewarmness,  orders  were  given 
'  to  shoot  any  man  leaving  his  post.' 


30  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

"  SheafiVs  men,  having  rested  after  the  forced  tramp,  a 
few  spherical  case  shot  by  Holcroft  drove  out  the  American 
riflemen.  His  gunners  had  at  last  silenced  the  Lewiston  bat- 
teries, and  finding  the  range,  sunk  almost  every  boat  that 
attempted  to  cross.  The  Indians  were  now  ordered  to  drive 
in  the  enemy's  pickets  slowly.  Scouting  the  woods,  they 
routed  the  outposts. 

"  About  4  p.m.,  Captain  Bullock,  with  two  flank  companies 
of  militia  and  150  men  of  the  41st,  advanced,  charging  the 
enemy's  right,  which  broke  in  great  confusion.  A  general 
advance  was  ordered,  and  with  wild  warwhoops  from 
the  Indians  and  cheers  by  the  soldiers,  the  heights  were 
rushed.  Wadsworth's  veterans  were  stampeded,  the  redan  re- 
taken at  the  point  of  the  bayonet,  and  Scott's  command  forced 
Flight  of  the  to  the  scarp  of  the  hill  overhanging  the  river.  The  Americans 

Americans.  r 

now  'fled  like  sheep,'  to  quote  their  own  historians,  and 
scattered  off  in  all  directions.  Some  raced  headlong  down 
the  main  road,  seeking  shelter  under  the  muzzles  of  Holcroft' s 
guns;  some  sought  refuge  in  the  houses,  others  raced  to  the 
landing,  only  to  find  their  boats  no  longer  there — not  a  few, 
hot  pressed  by  Brant's  avenging  Mohawks,  threw  themselves 
over  the  precipice,  preferring  death  in  that  shape  to  the  fate 
which  otherwise  awaited  them,  while  others  plunged  into  the 
Niagara,  essaying  to  swim  its  irresistible  eddies,  only  to  be 
blown  out  of  the  green  water  by  Holcroft's  grapeshot,  or 
sucked  down  by  the  river's  silent  whirlpools.  One  boat,  with 
50  struggling  refugees,  sank  with  its  entire  crew.  Two  others 
similarly  laden  were  beached  below  the  village,  with  only 
twelve  out  of  one  hundred  souls  still  living.  The  river  pre- 
sented a  shocking  scene.  On  the  surface  of  the  water,  many, 
maimed  and  wounded,  fought  and  struggled  for  survival.  This 
pitiable  spectacle  was  actually  taking  place  under  the  eyes  of 
several  thousand  American  soldiers  on  the  Lewiston  bank, 
who,  almost  impossible  to  believe,  and  to  their  lasting  dis- 
grace, refused  even  to  attempt  to  succour  their  comrades. 

tainedSby  S"         "  ^n  a^  ^58  American  soldiers  were  taken  prisoners  by  the 

both  sides.    British,  '  captured  by  a  force/  as  Colonel  Van  Eensselaer 

stated  in  an  official  despatch  after  the  battle,  '  amounting 

to  only  about  one-third  of  the  number  of  American  troops/ 


MAJOR-GENERAL    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK,    K.B.  3] 

Captain  Gist,  of  the  United  States  army,  placed  their  killed 
at  400. 

"  General  Van  Rensselaer's  defeat  was  complete  and  over- 
whelming. His  chagrin  at  his  failure  '  to  appal  the  minds 
of  the  Canadians  '  was  so  great  that  ten  days  later  he  re- 
signed his  command. 

"  The  account  as  between  Canada  and  the  United  States 
at  sundown  on  that  day  stood  as  follows : 

Total  American  force  engaged 1,600 

Killed,  wounded  and  prisoners 1,425 

The  total  British  force  engaged  (of  whom 
800  men  were  regulars  and  militia,  and 

200  Indians)  was 1,000 

Killed,  including  Major-General  Brock  and 

Colonel  Macdonell    14 

Wounded  and  missing 96 

Total  American  loss 1,425 

Total  British  loss 110 

"  The  next  day,  General  Sheaffe,  Isaac  Brock's  successor,  f^f6 
signed  another  armistice.     The  second  armistice  within  armistice! 
period  of  nine  weeks !" 

Brock's  lifeless  corpse  lay  for  a  time  where  he  had  fallen, 
about  one  hundred  yards  west  of  the  road  that  leads  through 
Queenston,  and  after  the  battle  was  borne  by  a  few  of  his  old 
Regiment  to  a  house  in  the  village  occupied  by  Laura 
Secord;  later  in  the  day  Captain  Glegg,  Brock's  brave 
aide — Macdonell,  the  other  aide-de-camp,  lay  dying  of 
his  wounds — hastened  to  the  spot,  and  had  it  conveyed 
to  Niagara.  On  the  16th  of  October,  the  bodies 
Major-General  Sir  Isaac  Brock  and  Lieutenant-Colonel 
donell  were  interred  at  Fort  George.  It  is  a  tribute  to  the 
magnanimity  of  the  Americans  that  during  the  funeral  pro- 
cession, minute  guns  were  fired  at  every  post  on  their  side  of 
the  river,  as  their  general  orders  stated,  "  as  a  mark  of  respect 
to  a  brave  enemy." 

Thus  we  have  seen  the  last  of  Sir  Isaac  Brock,  a  fitting 
culmination  to  his  career  and  a  life  devoted  to  the  service  of 
his  King  and  country. 


32  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

Amidst  the  lamentations  of  his  comrades  in  arms,  the 
respectful  salute  of  his  opponents,  the  tears  and  blessings  of 
the  Canadian  people,  with  the  posthumous  honours  of  his 
Sovereign  awaiting  him  and  the  gratitude  of  future  genera- 
tions of  Canadians  for  all  time  attending  him,  in  his  soldier's 
grave,  first  at  Fort  George,  and  now  under  the  monument  on 
Queenston  Heights  erected  to  commemorate  his  fame,  there 
let  us  leave  him. 

"  Sound,  sound  the  clarion,  fill  the  fife, 

To  all  the  sensual  world  proclaim 
One  crowded  hour  of  glorious  life 
Is  worth  an  age  without  a  name." 


II. 

ROMANTIC  ELEMENTS  IN  THE  HISTORY  OF  THE  MIS- 
SISSIPPI VALLEY.* 

BY  REUBEN  GOLD  THWAITES,  LL.D., 
Superintendent  of  Wisconsin  State  Historical  Society. 

Perhaps  to  some  of  my  auditors  it  may  at  first  seem  a  far  cry  from 
the  field  of  Ontario  history  to  that  of  the  Mississippi  Valley — from  a 
consideration  of  Sir  Isaac  Brock,  a  master  of  modern  warfare  in  this 
highly-developed  centre  of  civilization,  to  those  rude  pioneers  who,  but 
improving  the  methods  of  savagery,  rudely  opened  to  civilization  the 
vast  wilderness  of  the  trans- Alleghany.  But  the  association  of  the 
annals  of  Ontario  with  those  of  our  own  Middle  West  is  surely  intimate 
enough  to  warrant  this  shifting  of  the  scene. 

With  you,  the  roots  of  our  history  are  deeply  planted  in  the  soil  of 
New  France.  In  this  respect,  at  least,  your  history  is  warp  and  woof 
with  our  own — whether  it  be  Minnesota,  which  once  knew  Du  1'Hut  and 
Hennepin ;  Wisconsin,  claiming  Jean  Nicolet  as  her  discoverer ;  Michi- 
gan, proud  of  her  Cadillac ;  Indiana,  having  within  her  bounds  the  por- 
tage paths  of  La  Salle;  Ohio,  with  her  memories  of  Celeron;  Pennsyl- 
vania, where  Washington  met  the  French  advance  southward ;  New  York, 
wherein  Champlain  slaughtered  the  raging  Iroquois,  and  Jogues  met 
retributive  martyrdom;  New  England,  with  her  century  and  a  half  of 
border  turmoil  by  land  and  sea,  long  remembered  with  bitterness,  but 
at  this  distance  viewed  with  philosophic  calm;  or  Louisiana,  founded 
by  Iberville  and  Bienville.  Wherever  French  habitant  leisurely  toiled 
in  sweet  contentment,  French  explorer  feverishly  extended  the  bound 
of  empire,  French  fur-trader  wandered,  cassocked  priest  said  mass, 
white-f  rocked  soldier  kept  watch  and  ward  over  the  interest  of  the  great 
Louis,  ambitious  miner  found  veins  of  copper  and  coloured  earths,  or 
English  and  French  and  Indian  met  in  mortal  combat  on  the  frontiers 
of  civilization,  the  history  of  New  France  (of  which  Ontario  was  once 
so  important  a  part)  is  taught  as  the  local  tradition  of  every  northern 
state  of  the  Union,  east  of  the  River  Missouri. 

*Read  at  the  meeting  of  the  Ontario  Historical  Society  at  Napanee,  Ont.,  1912. 

33 


34  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

I  feel,  therefore,  that  you  will  think  it  not  incongruous  if  at  this 
gathering,  whose  programme  *  is  at  least  grimly  suggestive  of  an  inter- 
national conference,  I  very  briefly  recite  a  few  of  the  romantic  elements 
(French  and  British,  as  well  as  American)  in  the  historical  drama, 
nearly  three  centuries  in  the  acting,  which  has  found  its  stage  in  the 
Valley  of  the  Mississippi.  From  these  elements  of  romance  are  to  be 
fashioned  those  novels  and  poems  of  the  future  that  shall  give  to  this 
period  and  to  this  region  that  charm  of  literary  association  without 
which  no  annals  can  long  endure  in  the  heart  and  imagination  of  the 
people. 

The  advent  of  the  Spanish  explorers  in  our  valley  was  meteoric  in 
brilliancy  and  in  suddenness  of  departure.  But  he  who  seeks  rich  color, 
will  doubtless  find  the  French  regime  the  more  entertaining.  En- 
trenched with  apparent  security  on  the  rock  of  Quebec,  New  France 
early  despatched  her  explorers  westward  through  the  majestic  trough 
of  the  St.  Lawrence.  With  rare  enterprise  and  bravery  they  gradually 
pushed  their  way  up  toilsome  rivers,  along  westering  portage  paths,  and 
far  over  into  the  vast-stretching  wilderness  of  the  continental  interior 
lying  to  the  west  and  south  of  Canada. 

Where  are  there  finer  examples  of  dramatic  adventure  than  the  great 
journey  of  Nicolet,  sent  by  Champlain  into  Darkest  America  to  dis- 
cover a  short  route  to  China  ?  Donning  his  diplomatic  garb  of  figured 
damask,  to  meet  supposititious  mandarins,  he  encountered  only  naked 
Winnebago  savages  on  the  inland  waters  of  Wisconsin.  What  more 
stirring  incident  in  history  than  the  famous  expedition  of  Joliet  and 
Marquette  to  discover  the  far-away  Mississippi,  which  in  stately  curves 
glides  unceasingly  and  with  awesome  power  past  eroded  bluffs  and 
through  sombre  forests  southward  toward  tropic  seas  ?  Or,  the  far- 
distant  rovings  of  those  masterful  fur-trade  adventurers,  Radisson, 
La  Salle,  Tonty,  Perrot,  Du  1'Hut,  and  a  host  of  kindred  spirits  ?  Is 
there  anywhere  a  nobler  instance  of  self-sacrifice  than  the  splendid 
martyrdom  of  the  Jesuit  missionaries,  who,  imbued  with  the  proselyting 
zeal  of  mediaeval  saints,  in  their  quest  for  souls  often  suffered  the  hor- 
rors of  the  damned  ? 

Annual  trading  fleets  of  Indian  canoes  and  batteaux  from  the  far- 
distant  regions  of  the  Mississippi  and  the  Upper  Lakes,  laboriously 
journeyed  over  a  thousand  miles  to  Montreal  and  to  Quebec,  to  barter 
rich  furs  for  colored  beads  and  glittering  trinkets  fashioned  in  the 

"The  majority  of  the  papers  presented  had  reference  to  the  War    of   1812. 


HISTORY    OF    THE    MISSISSIPPI    VALLEY.  35 

shops  of  Brittany  and  Paris.  Piled  high  with  bales  of  peltries,  and 
propelled  by  gaily-appareled  savages  and  voyageurs,  the  flotillas  swept 
eastward  down  the  broad  rivers  in  rude  procession,  paddles  flashing  in 
the  sun,  the  air  rent  with  barbaric  yells  and  the  roaring  quaver  of 
merry  boating  songs. 

We  can  hear  and  see  the  boisterous  welcome  from  the  garrisons  of 
Lower  Canada ;  the  succeeding  weeks  of  trade  and  mad  carousal  on  the 
strand  of  Quebec  or  Montreal ;  and  then  the  return  of  the  copper-skinned 
visitors  to  the  "  Upper  Country,"  tricked  out  in  gaudy  finery,  bearing 
into  the  wilderness  fresh  stores  of  gew-gaws,  and  accompanied  by  an- 
other contingent  of  traders  and  explorers — often,  also,  by  Jesuit  mis- 
sionaries bent  on  showing  them,  even  against  their  will,  the  path  to  the 
White  man's  Manitou. 

Away  off  in  the  then  mysterious  land  of  the  Far  West,  were  insig- 
nificant military  outposts,  bulwarks  of  the  authority  of  New  France — 
Detroit,  Mackinac,  Green  Bay,  Chequamegon  Bay,  Yincennes;  and, 
ranged  along  the  Mississippi,  lay  Kaskaskia,  Cahokia,  Chartres,  and 
many  another  rude  bankside  fort  or  stockade,  all  the  way  from  Lake 
Pepin  to  Natchez. 

Around  each  of  these  little  forest  strongholds — of  logs  or  of  stone, 
as  materials  came  best  to  hand — was  clustered  a  tiny  hamlet  of  habi- 
tants :  boatmen,  tillers  of  the  soil,  mechanics,  according  to  bent  or  to 
necessity.  At  the  head  of  society  in  this  rude  settlement  was  the  mili- 
tary commandant.  Next  in  social  precedence  was  the  Jesuit  Father, 
whose  scanty  chapel  lay  just  within  the  gate;  perhaps  of  noble  birth 
and  training,  inevitably  a  scholar,  but  bound  by  unalterable  vows  to  a 
life  of  toilsome  self-sacrifice  for  the  winning  of  savage  souls  in  these 
inhospitable  wilds.  Ever  was  the  black-robe  coming  and  going  upon 
long  and  wearisome  journeys  among  the  tribesmen,  his  life  often  embit- 
tered by  the  jealousy  of  the  commandant. 

Frequent  visitors  at  the  frontier  fort  were  wandering  traders,  each 
at  the  head  of  a  band  of  rollicking  voyageurs,  jauntily  clad  in  fringed 
buckskins  and  showy  caps  and  scarfs,  with  a  semi-savage  display  of 
bracelets,  dangling  earrings,  and  necklaces  of  beads.  The  coureur  de 
bois,  or  unlicensed  trader,  accompanied  by  a  sprightly  party  of  devil- 
may-care  retainers,  occasionally  called,  upon  unheralded  expeditions 
here  and  there  through  the  dark  woodlands  and  along  sparkling  waters. 
He  was  in  his  day  the  most  daring  spirit  and  the  widest  traveller  in 
North  America. 


36  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

Freely  mingling  with  this  varied  and  variegated  company  were 
bands  of  half -naked,  long-haired  savages  and  halfbreeds,  glistening  with 
oils,  and  tricked  out  with  paint  and  feathers.  For  the  most  part  the 
boon  companions  of  the  French,  now  and  then  would  they  smite  their 
white  allies  with  cruel  treachery,  suddenly  converting  into  a  charnel- 
house  many  a  self-confident  outpost  of  the  far-stretching  realm  of  the 
great  Louis. 

Upon  this  inviting  amphitheatre  of  New  France,  we  find  a  hetero- 
geneous semi-feudal  society,  with  many  feudal  manners  and  customs, 
and  a  never-ending  variety  of  connections  with  the  Old  World.  Social, 
political,  and  mercantile  complications  were  multiplied  by  the  adven- 
turous and  diversified  aims  and  pursuits  of  the  colonists,  scattered  as 
they  were  through  thousands  of  miles  of  savage  wilderness. 

At  last,  one  fateful  summer,  the  men  of  the  hamlets  and  wilderness 
stations,  seigneurs  and  tenants,  traders  and  voyageurs,  commandants 
and  soldiery,  were  summoned  by  Indian  runners  to  hasten  to  the  Lower 
St.  Lawrence,  to  free  New  France  from  the  English  invaders,  whose 
very  existence  was  to  not  a  few  of  these  forest  exiles  virtually  unknown. 
On  the  Plains  of  Abraham  many  a  brave  fellow  from  the  Upper  Lakes 
and  the  Mississippi  Valley  gave  up  his  life  for  the  fleur  de  Us.  But  all 
in  vain,  for  the  time  had  come  to  ring  down  the  .curtain  on  this  gallant 
drama.  New  France  was  no  more. 

The  English,  however,  won  only  that  portion  of  the  great  valley 
lying  eastward  of  the  river;  upon  Spain,  France  by  secret  treaty  be- 
stowed New  Orleans  and  the  trans-Mississippi.  But  for  a  full  century, 
English  explorers,  fur-traders,  and  settlers  from  Pennsylvania,  Virginia; 
and  the  Carolinas  had  been  trespassing  on  French  preserves  to  the  west 
of  the  Appalachians,  and  tampering  with  the  Indian  allies  of  the 
Bourbons.  The  temerity  of  these  fearless  over-mountain  adventurers 
had  directly  incited  the  French  and  Indian  War,  which  resulted  in  the 
downfall  of  New  France. 

Contemporaneously  with  the  uprising  of  the  American  colonies 
against  the  Mother  Land,  there  began  a  great  transmontane  irruption 
into  our  valley — buckskin-clad  borderers  (largely  Scotch-Irishmen) 
laboriously  crossing  from  the  Atlantic  uplands  into  Kentucky,  whither 
Finley,  Boone,  the  Long  Hunters,  and  their  several  predecessors  had 
led  the  way.  This  Arcadia  of  forests  and  glades  and  winding  streams 
and  incomparable  game  was  won  from  savagery  only  after  long  years 
of  sturdy  warfare.  The  story  of  that  winning  is  filled  to  the  brim  with 


HISTORY    OF    THE    MISSISSIPPI    VALLEY.  37 

picturesque  and  tragic  incidents.  Cherokee,  Catawba,  and  Shawnee, 
moved  to  vengeance  by  persistent  pressure  upon  their  hunting  grounds, 
fought,  after  their  own  wild  standards,  and  fought  well,  for  what  they 
held  most  dear ;  they  would  have  been  cravens  not  to  have  made  a  stand. 
The  white  man,  pouring  his  ceaseless  caravans  through  Cumberland 
Gap  and  down  the  broad  current  of  the  Ohio,  brooked  no  opposition 
from  an  inferior  race,  for  white  man's  might  makes  right,  and  struck 
back  with  a  fury  often  augmented  by  fear.  Such  is  the  bloodstained 
story  of  our  method  of  conquering  the  American  wilderness. 

To  save  backwoods  Kentucky  from  devastating  forays  by  the  Indian 
allies  of  the  British  forces  in  Canada,  George  Rogers  Clark,  at  the 
head  of  that  now  famous  band  of  Virginia  frontiersmen,  many  of  whom 
were  garbed  in  an  airy  costume  combining  that  of  the  Highlander  with 
that  of  the  savage,  undertook  his  hazardous  but  successful  expedition 
against  Kaskaskia  and  Vincennes;  an  event  abounding  in  dramatic 
scenes  that  will  doubtless  live  long  in  the  history  of  the  United  States. 

Kentucky,  having  at  last  quieted  the  aborigine  by  crushing  him, 
now  entered  on  a  period  of  relative  prosperity.  Down  the  swift-rolling 
Ohio,  through  several  decades  descended  a  curious  medley  of  oar  and 
sail-driven  craft,  fashioned  in  the  boatyards  of  the  Allegheny,  Youghio- 
gheny,  and  Monongahela — rafts,  arks,  broad-horns,  flat  and  keel-boats, 
barges,  piroques,  and  schooners  of  every  design  conceivable  to  fertile 
brain.  These  singular  river  fleets  bore  emigrants  eager  to  found  new 
commonwealths  in  the  bounding  West.  Hailing  from  a  thousand 
neighborhoods  in  the  Eastern  States  and  from  many  countries  of  Europe, 
they  came  with  their  children,  their  tools,  their  cattle,  their  household 
gods — lusty,  pushing,  square-jawed,  unconquerable  folk,  suffering  on 
the  way  and  in  the  early  years  of  their  settlement  privations  seldom 
if  ever  surpassed  among  the  tales  of  the  border. 

And  now  Kentucky's  crops  had  become  larger  than  her  population 
could  consume.  She  needed  to  convey  them  to  the  markets  of  the  world, 
to  barter  them  for  the  goods  and  products  of  other  communities.  But 
Spain 'held  firm  control  of  the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi,  and  of  the  rich 
lands  beyond  the  broad  river,  and  upon  these  lands  our  Westerners 
were  beginning  to  look  with  hungry  eyes.  The  federal  authorities  of 
that  day  were  slow  to  realize  that  the  free  navigation  of  the  Mississippi 
was  a  vital  factor  in  the  development  of  the  West.  Consequently  there 
was  active  discontent  among  the  leaders  of  Kentucky.  Political  uneasi- 
ness was  fomented  first  by  Spanish  intrigues,  and  next  by  French — 


38  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

for  France  was  at  last  beginning  to  display  some  jealousy  of  the  young 
republic  whom  she  had  assisted  into  life,  and  apparently  she  would  fain 
have  unofficially  rejoiced  both  in  Western  secession  and  in  the  utiliza- 
tion of  trans-Allegheny  Americans  in  filibustering  expeditions  against 
Spanish  Louisiana.  Thus  was  the  West,  through  twenty  years  of  its 
formative  period,  in  a  state  of  secret  ferment.  The  full  story  of  this 
plotting  is  even  yet  unrevealed ;  but  gradually  the  facts  are  being  brought 
to  light,  and  furnish  fit  material  for  historical  romance. 

Spain,  fearing  that  an  assault  might  be  made  on  her  trans-Missis- 
sippi possessions  from  British  Canada,  made  flattering  offers  of  land 
grants  west  of  the  river  to  American  pioneers  who  should  colonize  her 
territory  in  that  region  and  cast  their  fortunes  with  her  people.  Many 
discontented  Kentuckians  accepted  these  terms  and  moved  on  to  Mis- 
souri, among  them  the  wandering  Boones,  who,  now  that  they  might  see 
from  the  nearest  hill-top  the  fire-place  smoke  from  neighboring  cabins, 
were  already  sighing  for  "  more  elbow  room  " ;  glad  enough  were  they 
to  be  rid  of  the  crowds  now  coming  to  Kentucky,"  to  get  new  and  cheap 
lands  in  the  farther  West,  to  avoid  taxes,  to  hunt  big  game,  and  once 
more  to  live  an  Arcadian  life.  I  love  to  picture  the  great  Daniel,  trans- 
planted in  his  old  age  to  these  fresh  wilds  westward  of  the  great  Missis- 
sippi, seated  at  the  door  of  his  little  log  cabin  on  Femme  Osage  Creek, 
dispensing  justice  at  a  Spanish  syndic,  by  methods  as  primitive  and 
arbitrary  as  those  of  an  Oriental  pasha.  Caring  little  for  rules  of 
evidence  as  laid  down  in  the  books,  saying  he  but  wished  to  know  the 
truth,  the  once  mighty  hunter  oftentimes  compelled  both  parties  to  a 
suit  to  divide  the  costs  between  them  and  begone. 

By  now,  an  incipient  American  empire  had  become  established  in 
the  trans-Allegheny.  Settlement  had  advanced  slowly  down  the  great 
eastern  affluents  of  the  Mississippi,  as  along  the  fingers  of  the  hand — 
the  broad  and  rich  valley  bottoms  being  occupied  by  a  crude  but  hard- 
headed  border  folk,  while  the  intervening  highlands  were  as  yet  left 
untouched,  save  as  farmer-hunters  here  roved  for  game  to  stock  their 
larders. 

The  great  Napoleon  had  meanwhile  risen  to  power.  Reflecting  on 
the  tragic  story  of  the  ousting  of  France  from  North  America,  he 
deemed  it  possible  to  rehabilitate  New  France  to  the  west  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi, and  at  the  same  time  to  check  the  United  States  in  its  westward 
growth.  He  therefore  coerced  Spain  into  retroceding  the  far-stretching 
Province  of  Louisiana  to  its  original  European  owner. 


HISTORY    OF    THE    MISSISSIPPI    VALLEY.  o9 

Now  came  another  fateful  move  upon  the  political  chess-board.  Three 
years  later,  Napoleon  was  facing  a  probable  war  with  Great  Britain. 
He  feared  that  his  arch  enemy  might,  in  the  course  of  the  struggle,  seize 
this  far-away  possession,  he  needed  money  with  which  to  replenish  his 
treasury,  and  at  the  same  time  he  thought  to  checkmate  England  by 
allowing  her  growing  American  rival  at  last  to  expand  her  bounds.  He 
therefore  sold  Louisiana  to  the  United  States — an  event  lacking  but  a 
year  of  two  centuries  after  the  first  successful  settlement  of  the  French 
in  Canada.  Nine  years  ago,  with  joyous  acclaim,  we  of  the  United 
States  celebrated  the  hundredth  anniversary  of  this  epoch-making  pur- 
chase that  has  helped  to  make  the  Union  one  of  the  mightiest  nations 
of  the  earth.  The  history  of  the  transaction  is  to-day,  in  our  land,  as 
household  words. 

But  even  had  not  the  Louisiana  Purchase  been  made  just  when  it 
was,  American  acquisition  of  the  trans-Mississippi  was  sure  to  have 
come.  A  river  is  no  adequate  boundary  between  nations,  if  on  one  bank 
be  a  people  like  the  Kentuckians,  feverish  to  cross,  and  on  the  other 
a  lethargic  folk,  like  the  Spanish-French  of  Louisiana  Province.  The 
Valley  itself  is  a  geographical  unit.  Tens  of  thousands  of  Americans 
had  by  this  time  descended  the  eastern  slope  of  the  basin,  and  many 
had  not  even  waited  by  the  eastern  riverside  for  a  change  in  the  political 
ownership  of  the  western.  Before  the  Purchase,  Kentuckians  had,  - 
uninvited  as  well  as  invited,  settled  on  Spanish  lands  along  the  lower 
reaches  of  the  Missouri  River.  The  chief  increase  in  the  population 
of  Upper  Louisiana  had,  during  the  last  two  decades  of  the  18th  century, 
been  American  borderers.  They  had  settled  on  French  lands  near  New 
Orleans ;  and  there  was  a  dense  American  centre  at  Natchez.  The  great 
Purchase  only  hastened  and  facilitated  the  national  progress  of  the 
Americans. 

The  ever-fascinating  and  thrilling  tale  of  Lewis  and  Clark,  as  under 
President  Jefferson's  masterly  direction  they  broke  the  path  for  civiliza- 
tion all  the  long  rugged  way  from  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri  to  the 
estuary  of  the  Columbia,  is  still  ringing  afresh  in  American  ears,  be- 
cause of  recent  centennial  observances. 

While  still  the  great  expedition  was  upon  its  route,  other  official 
explorers  were  searching  the  valleys  of  the  Red,  the  Arkansas,  and  the 
Republican,  reaching  out  to  Spanish  New  Mexico,  and  pushing  on  over 
the  rich  grazing  plains  of  Nebraska  and  Kansas  to  the  snow-capped 
peaks  of  the  eastern  Rockies.  The  golden  age  of  American  exploration 


40  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

through  the  newly-acquired  Territory  of  Louisiana,  forms  a  splendid 
chapter  in  the  annals  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  race.  The  names  of  Pike, 
Long,  Fremont,  Carson,  recall  many  a  rare  adventure  in  the  cause  of 
scientific  research.  The  records  of  the  great  rival  fur-trading  companies 
operating  in  the  trans-Mississippi,  with  their  picturesque  annual  cara- 
vans over  the  Santa  Fe  and  Oregon  trails,  and  the  stories  of  roving 
bands  of  trappers  and  scouts  who  in  following  the  buffalo  discovered 
mountain  passes  that  are  to-day  highways  of  the  world's  commerce, 
furnish  thrilling  scenes  to  grace  the  pages  of  a  thousand  romances. 

In  due  time,  the  narrow  paths  of  fur-traders,  trappers,  and  explorers 
were  broadened  by  emigrants,  who  throughout  the  nation's  history  have 
ever  crowded  toward  our  Farthest  West.  The  great  migration  to  Oregon 
in  the  forties  of  the  last  century  was  an  event  of  supreme  significance, 
and  in  some  measure  it  is  part  and  parcel  of  Canadian  history  also. 
Bold  and  restless  pioneers  set  forth  from  the  older  settlements  in 
wagons  and  on  foot,  with  their  women  and  children,  with  herds  of  cattle 
and  horses,  and  after  slowly  traversing  the  broad  plains,  painfully  crept 
over  the  mountain  barrier  and  spread  themselves  into  the  verdant  val- 
leys of  the  Willamette  and  the  Columbia. 

Soon  came  the  news  that  gold  was  discovered  in  California.  Then 
followed  another  mighty  westward  rush  over  the  transcontinental  trails 
— within  three  years  a  hundred  thousand  men  and  women  from  both 
hemispheres  crossed  the  Mississippi  in  their  mad  struggle  to  reach  the 
El  Dorado  of  Pacific  tidewater.  Ten  years  later,  the  Colorado  hills 
also  revealed  the  story  of  their  hidden  wealth.  Up  the  long  valleys  of 
the  Platte,  the  Smoky  Hill,  and  the  Arkansas,  singly  and  in  caravans, 
wearily  toiled  tens  of  thousands  from  all  the  corners  of  the  earth,  many 
falling  by  the  way  from  fatigue,  starvation,  and  the  wounds  of  Indian 
arrows.  Yet  their  experience  in  no  wise  checked  the  human  tide  that 
had  set  in  the  direction  of  the  everlasting  hills. 

Overland  stages  and  "  prairie  schooners  "  were  quickly  withdrawn 
upon  the  advance  of  the  Pacific  railways.  The  buffalo  and  grizzly  soon 
disappeared  from  our  Western  plains.  The  Indian,  stoutly  standing 
for  his  birthright,  was  subdued  at  last.  The  cowboy  succeeded  the 
explorer  and  the  trapper.  Upon  our  great  rivers — the  Ohio,  the  Mis- 
sissippi, and  the  Missouri — the  introduction  of  steamboats,  and  later 
the  bankside  railways,  wrought  a  like  transformation.  The  old  river 
life  with  its  picturesque  but  rowdy  boatmen,  its  unwieldy  produce-laden 


HISTORY    OF    THE    MISSISSIPPI    VALLEY.  41 

flats  and  keels  and  arks,  began  gradually  to  pass  away,  and  water  traffic 
to  approach  the  prosaic  stage. 

Prosaic,  perhaps,  because  nearer  our  present  vision.  But  in  America, 
at  least,  we  are  ever  in  a  period  of  transition.  For  example,  now  that 
the  great  northern  forests  in  the  Mississippi  Valley  have  nearly  been 
obliterated,  and  the  day  of  the  lumber  raft  is  for  us  fast  fading,  and 
the  "  lumberjack  "  in  in  his  parti-colored  Mackinac  blouse  is  about  shift- 
ing his  career  to  new  fields  of  activity  in  our  South  and  in  your  North- 
west, we  can  realize  that  he,  too,  has  been  a  striking  figure  on  our 
stage — worthy  of  a  place  beside  the  coureur  de  bois,  the  voyageur,  the 
habitant,  the  buckskin-clad  Scotch-Irishman  of  the  Wilderness  Trail, 
the  flat-boat  man,  the  scout  of  the  plains,  the  Rocky  Mountain  trapper, 
the  Oregon  pilgrim,  the  California  "  forty-niner,"  and  the  cowboy. 

In  our  story  of  the  American  West,  also,  we  must  leave  many  a  page 
for  the  stout  flood  of  agricultural  settlement  that  poured  into  the  trans- 
Allegheny  during  the  quarter  of  a  century  just  previous  to  the  War 
between  the  States.  New  England  and  New  York,  and  almost  every 
hamlet  of  western  and  northern  Europe,  sent  the  choicest  of  their  people. 
By  thousands  they  .came  to  found  new  fortunes  on  lands  recently  ac- 
quired by  purchase  from  the  tribesmen.  Our  local  history  is  rich  in 
stirring  details  of  their  migration,  and  in  particulars  of  their  priva- 
tions and  their  hardihood.  The  pioneers  have,  in  the  order  of  nature, 
now  all  but  left  us,  in  the  United  States ;  we  no  longer  possess  a  Western 
frontier ;  and  we  are  just  beginning  to  understand  that  the  story  of  these 
frontiersmen  is  a  splendid  epic  still  waiting  to  be  sung. 

What  may  we  not  say,  too,  of  the  part  our  great  Valley  played  in 
the  war  for  the  preservation  of  our  Union  ?  As  in  the  earlier  days  of 
the  giant  struggle  between  France  and  England  for  supremacy  in  North 
America,  control  of  this  vast  drainage  system  was  hotly  contested.  What- 
ever might  have  been  the  result  of  operations  on  the  Atlantic  Coast,  the 
power  holding  the  interior  valley  must,  in  the  end,  surely  have  won. 
From  the  population  to  the  west  of  the  Appalachians  came  the  great 
bulk  of  both  Northern  and  Southern  armies ;  nowhere  was  the  struggle 
more  nearly  brought  home  to  the  people.  Song  and  story  will  always 
find  abundant  theme  in  our  local  annals  of  the  war. 

Equally  important  has  been  the  Valley's  share  in  the  subsequent 
development  of  our  nation — the  social,  economic,  political,  industrial, 
intellectual  forces  of  the  interior  are  to-day  dominating  us  as  a  people. 


42  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

Such  are  some  of  the  elements  that  lend  to  the  annals  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi Valley  dignity  and  national  significance.  Until  the  close  of 
the  Eevolutionary  War,  they  are  in  considerable  measure,  also,  the 
annals  of  Canada.  You  Canadian  historians  will,  I  am  sure,  rejoice 
with  us  in  their  picturesque  vitality,  in  the  stirring  visions  which  they 
bring,  and  will  with  us,  in  the  spirit  of  that  reciprocity  that  should  every- 
where exist  between  students  of  local  history  in  North  America,  antici- 
pate the  time  when  the  poet  and  the  novelist  shall  find  in  them  material 
for  their  art;  for  after  all  (to  return,  in  conclusion,  to  my  text),  those 
annals  that  may  live  long  in  the  minds  of  the  people  are  only  such  as 
shall  be  interpreted  to  them  by  the  masters  of  romance. 


III. 

COLLECTIONS    OF    HISTORICAL    MATERIAL    RELATING 
TO  THE  WAR  OF  1812.* 

BY  FRANK  H.  SEVERANCE,  L.H.D.,  BUFFALO,  N.Y., 

Corresponding  Member  of  the  Ontario  Historical  Society. 

The  subject  assigned  to  me  in  your  programme  is  "  Collections  of 
Historical  Material  Relating  to  the  War  of  1812." 

Two  constructions,  I  think,  may  fairly  'be  put  on  the  subject.  It 
seems  to  call  for  an  account  of  existing  collections  in  public  or  private 
libraries  relating  to  the  War  of  1812 ;  it  also  may  be  treated  with  pro- 
priety by  submitting  an  analysis  of  the  material  which  makes  up  the 
literature  of  this  subject.  The  first  method  of  treatment  would  be 
brief;  the  second  method,  properly  followed,  would  of  necessity  be 
long  and  elaborate.  For  our  present  purpose  it  appears  best,  first, 
merely  to  glance  at  the  collections  on  this  subject  as  contained  in  not- 
able libraries,  and  secondly,  to  survey,  so  far  as  time  permits,  several 
phases  presented  in  the  general  field  of  literature  of  this  war. 

I  need  hardly  remind  you  that  outside  of  books  much  "  material " 
is  to  be  found  which  has  true  educative  value.  Our  historical  museums 
are  many  of  them  rich  in  relics,  pictures  and  other  reminders  of  this 
war.  This  is  specially  true  in  communities  which  during  that  war 
were  the  scene  of  special  activity.  In  New  England,  New  York, 
throughout  the  seaboard  States,  especially  at  Baltimore  and  at  New 
Orleans,  are  preserved  many  reminders  of  this  conflict.  The  regions 
about  Lake  Champlain  and  the  Great  Lakes  are  peculiarly  rich  for 
the  student,  not  only  in  relics  preserved,  but  in  associations.  Build- 
ings and  battlefields  are  other  sorts  of  "material"  which  teach,  often 
more  effectively  than  the  document  or  the  printed  page.  But  it  is  not 
with  this  phase  of  the  subject  that  I  am  to  deal.  My  especial  theme  is 
the  literature  of  the  War  of  1812. 

I  have  made  some  effort  to  learn  what  is  contained  in  great  lib- 
raries on  this  subject.  The  replies  from  experienced  librarians  are 
those  which  all  library  workers  would  anticipate.  I  am  told  in  effect 
by  the  Librarian  of  Congress,  by  Doctor  Thwaites  of  the  State  His- 
torical Society  of  Wisconsin,  by  the  Librarian  of  Harvard  University, 

*  Read  at  the  meeting  of  the  Ontario  Historical  Society  at  Napanee,  Ont.,  1912. 

43 


44  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

and  by  the  custodians  of  other  notable  historical  collections,  that  it  is 
impossible  to  say  with  definiteness  how  much  material  they  have  on 
this  subject.  While  every  library  has  numerous  works  brought  to- 
gether under  its  classification  system  relating  to  the  War  of  1812,  that 
same  classification  system  refers  to  other  headings  and  departments  a 
vast  amount  of  material  bearing  on  the  same  subject.  It  is  enough 
to  remind  you  that  all  the  general  classifications  of  a  large  library, 
such  as  biography,  individual  or  collected ;  periodicals ;  naval  history ; 
general  military  history;  poetry,  etc.,  would  naturally  embrace  much 
material  important  to  the  student  of  the  War  of  1812  period.  Hence 
it  might  follow  that  a  library,  the  catalogue  of  which  showed  by  title 
comparatively  few  books  or  pamphlets  or  papers  on  this  subject,  might 
still  contain  far  larger  and  more  important  collections  on  the  general 
subject  than  another  library  which  had  in  its  catalogue  cards  a  larger 
list  under  the  1812  classification. 

With  this  general  reminder,  it  is  hardly  necessary  to  specify  fur- 
ther along  this  line.  Naturally  the  great  libraries  of  our  country  are 
strongest  in  1812  as  in  other  collections.  Perhaps  first  in  any  list 
should  be  named  the  Library  of  Congress,  which  is  all-embracing. 
After  that,  and  possibly  the  New  York  Public  Library,  the  student  of 
this  subject  would  turn  to  the  great  New  England  depositories:  the 
Carter  Brown  Library  at  Providence,  the  Library  of  Harvard  Uni- 
versity, the  Boston  Public,  and  the  Antiquarian  Society  at  Worcester. 
Other  important  regional  literatures  have  been  brought  together  by 
the  Maryland  Historical  Society  at  Baltimore,  and  I  believe  by  the 
Library  of  Tulane  University  at  New  Orleans.  So  far  as  I  am  aware, 
the  best  collection  of  periodical  literature  on  this  period  is  to  be  found 
at  Madison. 

It  is  a  matter  of  record,  to  be  mentioned  now  without  comment  or 
preachment,  that  two  of  the  most  notable  collections  on  the  subject, 
supposedly  housed  in  secure  depositories,  were  turned  to  smoke  and 
ashes  by  the  conflagrations  in  the  Parliament  Buildings  at  Toronto 
and  the  State  Capitol  at  Albany.  I  had  some  acquaintance  with  these 
collections  and  am  of  the  impression  that  both  ranked  high  in  value 
relating  to  the  1812  period. 

There  is  in  Buffalo  a  little  library,  not  at  all  to  be  mentioned  with 
the  great  book  collections  of  America,  in  which  is  to  be  found  an  ex- 
ceptionally comprehensive  collection  on  the  period  we  are  considering. 
The  Buffalo  Historical  Society  had  already  a  good  representative  col- 
lection on  this  subject  when,  a  few  years  ago,  there  was  turned  over 
to  it  a  larger  collection,  the  formation  of  which  had  been  for  a  long 
period  one  of  my  diversions.  As  a  result,  the  Buffalo  Historical  So- 


COLLECTION    OF    HISTORICAL    MATERIAL,    WAR    OF    1812.  45 

ciety  now  has  what  I  believe  to  be  one  of  the  best  collections  on  this 
subject.  A  card  list  which  I  prepared  some  time  ago  enumerates  some 
nine  hundred  titles,  not  including  perhaps  twice  as  many  entries  of 
papers  and  studies  of  special  phases  of  our  subject  contained  in  local 
histories,  in  periodical  publications,  and  especially  in  the  transactions 
of  learned  societies.  While  this  does  not  tally  accurately  with  the 
material  in  our  possession,  it  is  still  fairly  representative.  As  it  is 
this  collection  I  am  best  acquainted  with,  it  seems  appropriate  for  me 
to  consider  it  in  passing  to  the  second  phase  of  my  subject. 

Our  collection,  then,  contains,  as  must  any  collection  which  aims 
to  be  comprehensive  in  the  literature  of  the  War  of  1812,  books  and 
pamphlets  which  fall  into  the  following  classes:  Events  leading  up  to 
the  war,  especially  the  Embargo  and  non-intercourse ;  general  naval 
histories  of  the  United  States  and  of  Great  Britain;  general  military 
histories;  official  gazettes,  journals  and  like  publications;  periodicals, 
not  official;  special  histories  of  the  period  of  the  war;  biographies; 
memorials,  including  transactions  of  institutions  relative  to  the  erec- 
tion of  monuments  and  the  observance  of  anniversaries;  controversial 
publications,  both  political  and  personal,  the  latter  as  to  the  service 
of  this  or  that  officer,  etc. ;  claims,  either  for  Government  promotion 
for  service  rendered,  pensions,  or  for  damages  and  losses  sustained  by 
non-combatants;  sermons,  in  which  political  doctrines  were  promul- 
gated in  the  guise  of  religious  instruction ;  poetry,  drama,  fiction, 
juvenile  literature,  and,  omitting  much,  modern  philosophical  studies 
in  which  it  is  explained  how  things  might  have  been  otherwise. 

This  list  could  still  be  considerably  extended  and  classified.  There 
are  numerous  works  pertaining  to  our  subject,  which  consider  chiefly 
the  financial  aspect  of  the  times.  There  are  others  dealing  with 
special  phases  of  the  causes  that  led  up  to  the  war,  as,  for  instance,  the 
violation  of  neutral  rights  and  the  impressment  of  seamen.  There  is 
a  considerable  literature  of  wanderers'  narratives,  including  some  of 
the  curiosities  of  our  history;  and  there  is  also  a  considerable  litera- 
ture of  brag  and  bluster,  contributed  to,  perhaps,  in  equal  proportions 
by  all  the  contending  parties. 

That  what  is  commonly  referred  to  by  American  writers  as  "  our 
second  war  with  Great  Britain  "  has  enlisted  the  pens  of  able  students 
is  seen  when  we  glance  at  the  title  pages  of  many  of  the  best  known 
works.  To  this  period  ^belong  writings  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  James 
Madison,  James  Eenimore  Cooper,  George  Bancroft,  A.  J.  Dallas, 
Eichard  Hildreth,  Alexander  H.  Stephens,  General  James  Wilkinson, 
Governor  Daniel  D.  Tompkins,  Major-General  George  W.  Cullum, 
Henry  A.  S.  Dearborn,  George  Gary  Eggleston,  Benson  J.  Lossing, 


46  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

J.  C.  Gilleland,  Solomon  Hale,  J.  T.  Headley,  T.  W.  Higginson, 
Kobert  McAfee,  R.  B.  Mitfee,  Charles  J.  Ingersoll,  Major  A.  L. 
Latour,  T.  O'Connor,  James  Parton,  Theodore  Roosevelt.  These 
among  the  Americans.  Among  the  English  authors,  very  notably, 
William  James,  John  Symons,  Frederick  Brock  Tupper,  Major-Gen- 
eral Sir  Carmichael  Smith,  G.  R.  Gleig,  the  Marquis  of  Wellesley,  and 
many  others. 

Of  Canadian  authors  in  this  field,  again  omitting  many  of  note,  I 
may  mention  G.  Auchinleck,  Robert  Christie,  Ernest  Cruikshank, 
Captain  F.  C.  Denison,  Colonel  George  T.  Denison,  William  Kings- 
ford,  William  Kirby,  Captain  W.  H.  Merritt,  D.  B.  Read,  Charles 
Roger,  Thomas  Rideout  and  Matilda  Edgar,  and  especially  Major 
John  Richardson,  whose  "Narrative  of  the  Operations  of  the  Right 
Division  of  the  Army  of  Upper  Canada,  during  the  American  War  of 
1812,"  printed  at  Brockville  in  1842,  is  one  of  the  rarest  of  Canadiana. 

The  student  of  this  period  cannot  neglect  certain  very  able  chap- 
ters in  works  of  wide  scope,  such  as  C.  D.  Yonge's  "  History  of  the 
British  Navy,"  Yon  Hoist's  "  Constitutional  and  Political  History  of 
the  United  States,"  G.  Bryce's  "  Short  History  of  the  Canadian 
People,"  and  numerous  other  works  of  general  character. 

Let  us  glance  briefly  at  some  of  the  books  which  we  have  referred 
to  some  of  these  classes.  The  literature  which  may  be  entitled  "Causes 
leading  up  to  the  war,"  is  surprisingly  large  and  important.  I  do  not 
need  to  remind  this  audience  that  no  period  in  history  can  be  separ- 
ated from  what  has  gone  before,  or  what  follows,  and  ticketed  off  as 
complete.  To  embrace  all  of  the  causes  of  this  second  war  thoroughly 
and  conscientiously  would  mean  to  include  much  of  the  story  of 
America.  For  library  purposes,  however,  it  is  possible  to  draw  the 
lines  with  fair  satisfaction,  so  that  they  shall  include  such  studies  as 
Alexander  Baring's  "  Inquiry  into  the  causes  and  consequences  of  the 
orders  in  council,  and  an  examination  of  the  conduct  of  Great  Britain 
towards  the  neutral  commerce  of  America,"  published  in  London  in 
1808.  For  some  years  earlier  even  than  that  date  these  subjects  occa- 
sioned many  pamphlets  and  many  discussions  in  Parliament.  Of  im- 
portance, too,  for  this  period  is  James  Stephen's  "  War  in  Disguise,  or 
the  Frauds  of  the  Neutral  Flags,"  a  London  publication  of  1807. 
Many  others  of  this  character  might  be  mentioned. 

Then  we  have  a  surprisingly  large  contemporary  literature  that 
might  be  gathered  about  the  single  word  "  Embargo,"  ranging,  to 
mention  only  American  authorship,  from  William  Cullen  Bryant's 


COLLECTION    OF    HISTORICAL    MATERIAL,    WAR    OF    1812.  47 

juvenile  work,  "  The  Embargo/'  printed  in  1808,  to  Thomas  Jeffer- 
son's voluminous  writings,  ending  with  his  life  in  1826. 

The  personal  phase  of  this  period  is  picturesquely  brought  out  in 
numerous  narratives  of  impressment;  such,  for  instance,  as  that  by 
Joshua  Davis,  "  who  was  pressed  and  served  on  board  six  ships  of  the 
British,"  etc. ;  or  the  harrowing  tale  of  James  McLean,  who  at  Hart- 
ford, in  1814,  published  his  "  Seventeen  years'  history  of  Sufferings 
as  an  Impressed  Seaman  in  British  Service."  There  are  numerous 
narratives  of  this  character  which,  taken  together,  make  up  an  exceed- 
ingly lively  prelude  to  the  war  itself. 

The  political  shelf  of  our  1812  library  must  contain,  not  only  long 
series  of  debates  in  Parliament  and  speeches  in  Congress,  but  a  number 
of  important  serial  or  periodical  publications,  some  of  them  official, 
such  as  the  London  Gazette,  which  through  many  years  contains  in 
bulletin  form  precise  data  invaluable  to  the  student;  The  Royal  Mili- 
tary Calendar;  Dodsley's  Annual  Register;  and,  in  America,  The 
United  States  Army  Register;  Nile's  Register;  The  Portfolio;  the 
periodical  entitled  "  The  War,"  and  scores  of  others  of  varying  value. 

Of  controversial  works,  especially  pamphlets,  there  is  no  end,  many 
of  them  illustrating,  better  than  the  fuller  and  more  deliberate  his- 
tories, the  temper  of  the  time.  It  was  a  period  when  for  one  reason 
or  another  anonymity  was  thought  to  be  an  essential  of  political  dis- 
cussion. Some  of  you  no  doubt  can  tell  me  who  was  the  author  of  the 
letters  of  "  Veritas,"  first  published  in  the  Montreal  Herald,  afterwards 
brought  together  and  printed  in  Montreal  in  1815,  in  which  is  given  a 
narrative  of  the  military  administration  of  Sir  George  Prevost  during 
his  command  in  the  Canadas,  "  Whereby  it  will  appear  manifest  that 
the  merit  of  preserving  them  from  conquest  belongs  not  to  him."  In 
the  guise  of  "  A  New  England  Farmer,"  John  Lowell,  of  Massachusetts, 
bombarded  President  Madison  with  numerous  pamphlets.  In  earlier 
years,  "  Juriscola,"  in  a  series  of  fifteen  letters,  had  done  his  best  to 
annihilate  Great  Britain;  and  "Don  Quixote,"  in  a  most  remarkable 
publication,  "  Ichneumon,"  laboured  as  a  patriot  to  settle  internecine 
strife. 

Perhaps  better  known  are  the  papers  of  "  Touchstone,"  who,  it 
appears,  was  DeWitt  Clinton.  I  could  go  on  in  this  field  at  great 
length.  It  is  a  piquant  and  a  tempting  one  to  the  bibliographer  in  its 
variety  and  its  occasional  discoveries. 

I  doubt  if  any  period  in  our  history  has  developed  more  literature 
that  may  be  summed  up  as  curios.  Many  of  them  are  trifling  in  his- 
torical value,  but  our  library  must  have  them.  Here,  for  instance, 


48  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

is  the  treatise  entitled  "  The  Beauties  of  Brother  Bull-us,  by  his 
Loving  Sister,  Bull-a."  Who  would  think  of  finding  essays  on  the  War 
of  1812  hidden  under  such  a  title  as  C.  W.  Hart  chose  for  his  work 
printed  at  Poughkeepsie  in  1816,  "  Colloquy  between  two  Deists,  on 
the  Immortality  of  the  Soul  "  ?  Better  known  and  more  amusing  is 
the  work  ascribed  to  Israel  Mauduit,  "  Madison  Agonistes,  or  the 
agonies  of  Mother  Goose,"  a  political  burletta  represented  as  to  be 
acted  on  .the  American  stage.  Among  the  dramatis  personce  are  Ran- 
dolpho  and  Adamo,  Members  of  Congress,  etc.  I  may  also  mention 
"  The  Federal  Looking  Glass,"  published  in  1812,  which  pictures 
General  Hull's  "  surrender  to  the  Devil." 

Surely  to  this  -class  belongs  "  The  Adventures  of  Uncle  Sam  in 
Search  After  his  Lost  Honour,"  by  Frederick  Augustus  Fidfaddy,  Esq., 
who  announced  himself  as  "  member  of  the  Legion  of  Honour,  Scratch- 
etary  to  Uncle  Sam  and  Privy  Counsellor  to  Himself."  The  title- 
page  motto  in  "  Merino  Latin  "•  "  Taurem  per  caudem  grabbo  " — 
sheds  light  on  the  serious  character  of  the  work. 

More  serious,  but  I  think  also  more  amusing,  is  the  work  entitled 
"  An  Affecting  Narrative  of  Louisa  Baker,  a  Native  of  Massachusetts 
who  in  Disguise  Served  Three  Years  as  a  Marine  on  board  an  American 
Frigate."  This  is  a  Boston  imprint  of  1815,  but  is  next  unique  as  a 
record  of  a  woman  disguised  serving  in  this  war,  for  we  have  still 
another  work  with  the  following  title :  "  The  Friendless  Orphan.  An 
affecting  Narrative  of  the  Trials  and  Afflictions  of  Sophia  Johnson,  the 
Early  Victim  of  a  Cruel  Stepmother,  whose  Afflictions  and  Singular 
Adventures  probably  exceed  those  of  any  other  American  Female  living, 
who  has  been  doomed  in  early  life  to  drink  deep  of  the  cup  of  sorrow," 
etc.,  etc.  Sophia  experienced  her  sorrows  in  part  at  Buffalo,  Fort 
Erie  and  elsewhere  on  the  frontier  disguised  as  a  man,  and  lost  an  arm 
at  the  Battle  of  Bridgewater,  of  which  an  extraordinary  engraving  is 
given.  Sophia,  sans  arm,  is  also  portrayed. 

I  will  merely  mention  G.  Proctor's  "  Lucubrations  of  Humphrey 
Kavelin,  Esq.,  Late  Major  in  the  *  *  *  Regiment  of  Infantry."  This 
is  a  London  publication,  giving  some  account  of  military  life  and  Indian 
warfare  in  Canada  during  the  1812  period.  Another  curious  work  is 
Gilbert  J.  Hunt's  "  Historical  Reader,"  of  which  numerous  editions 
were  published.  The  narrative  is  a  poor  imitation  of  the  style  of  Chron- 
icles and  other  historical  books  of  the  Old  Testament. 

Perhaps  rarest  of  these  curios,  at  least  in  the  original  edition,  is 
"  The  War  of  the  Gulls,  an  Historical  Romance  in  Three  Chapters," 
reputed  to  be  by  Jacob  Bigelow  and  Nathan  Hale,  published  at  the 


COLLECTION    OF    HISTORICAL    MATERIAL,    WAR    OF    1812.  49 

Dramatic  Repository,  Shakespeare  Gallery,  New  York,  in  1812.  This 
work  has  been  recently  reprinted,  an  honour  which  it  quite  deserves. 

Among  the  curios,  too,  should  have  place  sundry  plays  and  dramas 
based  on  the  war.  I  mention  but  two  of  them:  one  by  Mordecai 
Manuel  Noah,  a  Hebrew  journalist  of  New  York,  who  undertook  to 
establish  a  modern  Ararat  and  Refuge  City  for  the  Jews  on  Grand 
Island,  in  Niagara  River,  but  whose  contribution  to  this  field  of  letters 
is  entitled :  "  She  Would  be  a  Soldier,  or  the  Plains  of  Chippewa ;  an 
Historical  Drama  in  Three  Acts."  Major  Noah's  play  was  enacted  for 
a  time  on  the  New  York  stage.  Half  a  century  later  Clifton  W. 
Tayleure  produced  another  play  of  this  period,  "  The  Boy  Martyrs  of 
September  12th,  1814,"  which  with  little  literary  merit  and  seemingly 
less  dramatic  possibilities,  was  staged  for  a  time  in  New  York. 

Under  the  heading  of  "  Prisoners'  Memoirs  "  there  are  numerous 
publications  relating  to  the  war,  which  fall  into  two  classes.  First,  the 
narratives  of  men  who  shared  in  Western  campaigns,  usually  American 
pioneers  who  were  taken  by  British  and  Indians.  An  example  is  the 
narrative  of  William  Atherton,  entitled  "  Narrative  of  the  Sufferings 
and  Defeat  of  the  Northwestern  Army  under  Gen.  Winchester ;  Mas- 
sacre of  the  Prisoners;  Sixteen  Months'  Imprisonment  of  the  Writer 
and  others  with  the  Indians  and  British,"  etc.,  a  prolix  title,  the  work 
itself  printed  at  Frankfort,  Kentucky,  in  1842.  Still  other  chronicles 
of  this  character  are  to  be  gathered. 

A  wholly  different  field  of  experience  was  that  of  Americans  who 
underwent  imprisonment  at  Dartmoor  in  England.  Perhaps  the  best 
known  of  these  memoirs  is  the  volume  by  Charles  Andrews,  "  Con- 
taining a  Complete  and  Impartial  History  of  the  Entire  Captivity  of 
the  Americans  in  England  from  the  Commencement  of  the  Late  War 
•  until  all  prisoners  were  released  by  the  Treaty  of  Ghent.  Also 
a  particular  detail  of  all  occurrences  relative  to  that  horrid  massacre 
at  Dartmoor,  on  the  fatal  evening  of  the  6th  of  April,  1815."  Andrews' 
tale  was  printed  in  New  York  in  1815. 

The  next  year,  at  Boston,  Benjamin  Waterhouse  published  "  A 
Journal  of  a  Young  Man  of  Massachusetts,  late  a  Surgeon  on  board  an 
American  privateer,  who  was  captured  at  sea  by  the  British,  in  May, 
1813,  and  was  confined,  first  at  Melville  Island,  Halifax,  then  at  Chat- 
ham, in  England,  and  last  at  Dartmoor  prison." 

In  1841  appeared  "  A  Green  Hand's  First  Cruise,  Roughed  out 
from  the  Log  Book  of  Memory  of  25  years  standing,  together  with  a 
residence  of  five  months  in  Dartmoor."  This  two-volume  work,  one 


50  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

of  the  scarcest  books  of  the  War  of  1812,  was  published  at  Baltimore  by 
"  A.  Younker,"  probably  a  pen-name. 

As  late  as  1878  appeared  still  another  contribution  to  this  class  of 
works :  "  The  early  life  and  later  experiences  and  labours  of  Joseph 
Bates,"  who  records  that  in  early  life  he  was  a  sailor,  was  captured  by 
the  English  in  the  War  of  1812  and  confined  in  Dartmoor  prison.  In 
later  life  he  became  an  anti-slavery  agitator. 

The  phrase  "  Wanderers'  Narratives  "  fairly  describes  numerous 
works  which  the  student  of  our  subject  will  encounter;  books,  for 
instance,  like  Eichard  J.  Cleveland's  "  In  the  Forecastle ;  or  Twenty- 
five  Years  a  Sailor."  His  sailing  days  were  from  1792  to  1817,  and 
he  saw  much  and  records  much  of  privateering  during  the  War  of  1812. 

Another  "  wanderer  "  was  Patrick  Grass,  whose  "  Life  and  Times," 
first  published,  I  believe,  at  Wellsburg,  Va.,  in  1859,  has  in  recent 
years  been  reprinted.  When  he  wrote  his  Memoirs,  Gass  claimed  to 
be  the  sole  survivor  of  the  Lewis  and  Clark  overland  expedition  to 
the  Pacific  of  1804  to  1806.  He  was  also  a  soldier  in  the  war  with 
Great  Britain,  1812  to  1815,  and  fought  at  Lundy's  Lane.  About  fifty 
pages  of  his  book  relate  to  this  war,  mostly  to  events  on  the  Niagara. 

In  this  class  may  perhaps  be  mentioned  a  well-known  work,  Captain 
David  Porter's  "  Journal  of  a  Cruise  made  in  the  Pacific  Ocean  in  the 
United  States  Frigate  Essex,  in  the  years  1812,  '13  and  '14." 

Much  less  known  is  P.  Finan's  "  Journal  of  a  Voyage  to  Quebec 
in  the  Year  1825,  with  Recollections  of  Canada  during  the  late  Ameri- 
can War,  in  the  Years  1812,  1813."  In  the  second  part  of  his  book 
Mr.  Finan  gives  his  personal  experiences  in  the  war.  He  was  with  his 
father,  an  officer,  at  the  burning  of  Toronto,  April  27th,  1813.  As  an 
eye-witness  his  record  of  that  and  other  events  is  important. 

I  may  dismiss  this  special  phase  of  our  subject  with  the  mention  of 
but  one  other  work,  "  The  Travels  and  Adventures  of  David  C.  Bun- 
nell."  After  a  life  suspiciously  full  of  romantic  adventure,  some  none 
too  creditable,  Bunnell  joined  the  American  navy  under  Chauncey, 
served  on  Lake  Ontario,  1812-13,  and  left  Fort  Niagara  July  3,  1813, 
in  Jesse  Elliot's  command,  going  from  Buffalo  to  Put-in  Bay  in  open 
boats.  According  to  his  narrative,  he  was  on  the  Lawrence  during 
the  Battle  of  Lake  Erie,  and  afterwards  was  put  on  the  schooner 
Cliippewa,  as  second  in  command,  and  ran  her  between  Put-in  Bay  and 
Detroit  "  as  a  packet,"  being  finally  caughtvin  a  gale,  blown  the  whole 
length  of  Lake  Erie  and  driven  ashore  upon  the  beach  about  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  below  Buffalo  Creek.  He  landed  safely,  remaining  in 
Buffalo  until  Perry  and  Barclay  arrived  and  were  given  a  'public 


COLLECTION    OF    HISTORICAL    MATERIAL,    WAR    OF    1812.  51 

dinner,  on  which  occasion,  he  says,  "  I  managed  a  field  piece  and  fired 
for  the  toasts."  His  account  of  his  services  and  adventures  on  the  lakes 
appears  to  be  veracious,  which  is  more  than  can  be  said  of  some  por- 
tions of  his  romantic  but  highly  entertaining  chronicle.  It  may  be 
noted  that  his  book  was  issued  in  the  same  year  and  apparently  from 
the  same  press  as  the  rare  first  edition  of  the  Book  of  Mormon,  being 
printed  at  Palmyra,  N.Y.,  by  Grandin  in  1831. 

A  considerable  shelf,  perhaps  "  five  feet  long,'7  could  be  filled  with 
stories  of  the  War  of  1812.  My  studies  of  American  history  have 
well-nigh  convinced  me  that  that  war  was  fought,  not  to  maintain 
American  rights  on  the  high  seas,  but  to  stimulate  the  development  of 
American  letters  by  supplying  picturesque  material  for  budding 
romancers.  The  only  drawback  to  that  theory  is  that  the  straight- 
forward unadorned  record  of  the  old  sea  duels,  like  that  of  the  Consti- 
tution and  the  Guerriere,  has  more  thrills  in  it  than  the  romancers  can 
invent.  But  for  well-nigh  a  century  the  novelists  have  hovered  about 
this  period,  like  bumble-bees  in  a  field  of  clover.  The  war  on  the  lakes 
and  the  Niagara  frontier  has  had  a  share  of  their  attention.  There  are 
boys'  books  with  Perry  for  a  hero — always  with  the  introduction  of 
things  more  or  less  impossible  to  the  character.  The  events  of  1812-14 
on  the  Niagara  have  been  much  used  by  Canadian  story-writers.  There 
is  "  Hemlock,"  by  Eobert  Sellars  (Montreal,  1890),  which  follows 
many  of  the  events  of  the  war  in  our  district  and  is  none  the  less  worthy 
of  American  readers  because  its  point  of  view  and  sympathies  are  so 
notably  Canadian.  A  work  of  greater  merit  is  "  Neville  Trueman,  the 
Pioneer  Preacher,  a  Tale  of  1812,"  by  W.  H.  Withrow,  published  in 
Toronto  in  1886.  The  fictitious  characters  mingle  with  the  real,  at 
Queenston  Heights,  Fort  George,  the  burning  of  Niagara,  Chippewa 
and  Lundy's  Lane.  It  is  a  simple  tale,  with  no  affectations;  and  it 
makes  a  record  which  we  are  glad  to  have  of  high  character  and  worthy 
impulses.  There  were  true  patriots  in  Canada  in  those  days,  and  it 
is  wholesome  to  read  of  them,  no  matter  on  which  side  of  the  river  one 
may  live.  In  this  class  belongs  Amy  E.  Blanchard's  tale,  "  A  Loyal 
Lass;  a  Story  of  the  Niagara  Campaign  of  1814."  The  list  might  be 
much  extended. 

If  this  war  has  inspired  the  production  of  fiction,  it  has  also  proved, 
at  least  in  the  earlier  years,  an  unfailing  fount  of  inspiration  for  the 
poets.  I  do  not  know  of  much  poetry  produced  in  England  on  this 
account.  The  affair  does  not  appear  to  have  presented  a  poetic  aspect 
to  British  authors.  But  to  many  an  American,  especially  of  the  type 
easily  fired  to  extravagant  patriotic  expression,  it  was  provocative  of 


52  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

wonderful  results.  Some  worthy  poets  produced  true  poetry  with  this 
war  as  the  theme.  Some  of  the  patriotic  songs  of  Philip  Freneau 
deserve  the  place  they  have  held  in  American  literature  for  a  century. 
Samuel  Woodworth's  "  Heroes  of  the  Lake/'  a  poem  in  two  books,  con- 
tains excellent  lines.  So  long  a  production  could  hardly  fail  of  being 
good  at  intervals.  Many  of  Woodworth's  poems,  odes,  songs,  and  other 
metrical  effusions  were  based  on  incidents  in  this  war.  So  was  John 
Davis'  "  The  American  Mariners,"  vouched  for  on  the  title  page  as 
"  A  moral  poem,  to  which  are  added  Naval  Annals,"  a  delightful  com- 
bination of  the  flight  of  Pegasus  and  the  most  uninspired  of  statistics. 
This  work,  first  published  at  Salisbury,  England,  in  1822,  has  had  at 
least  two  or  more  editions. 

I  can  only  mention  such  works  as  the  "  Court  of  Neptune  and  the 
Curse  of  Liberty,"  New  York,  1817;  the  "  Columbian  Naval  Song- 
ster," and  other  collections,  containing  numerous  songs  celebrating  the 
exploits  of  Perry,  McDonough  and  others ;  and  "  The  Battle  of  the 
Thames,"  being  an  extract  from  the  unpublished  work,  entitled 
"  Tecumseh,"  the  author  veiling  his  identity  as  "  A  Young  American." 

Thomas  Pierce's  "  The  Muse  of  Hesperia,  a  Poetic  Keverie," 
appeared  in  Cincinnati  in  1823.  A  note  in  Thomson's  Bibliography 
of  Ohio  says  of  this  work,  "  For  this  poem  the  author  was  awarded  a 
gold  medal  by  the  Philomathic  Society  of  Cincinnati  College,  in 
November,  1821,  but  he  never  claimed  the  prize."  It  relates  mainly 
to  the  events  of  the  War  of  1812  in  the  Northwest,  and  contains  notes 
relating  to  persons  and  events  mentioned  in  the  text. 

In  Halifax,  in  1815,  there  appeared  "A  Poetical  Account  of  the 
American  Campaigns  of  1812  and  '13,  with  some  slight  sketches  relating 
to  Party  Politics  which  governed  the  United  States  during  the  War 
and  at  its  Commencement,"  dedicated  to  the  people  of  Canada  by  the 
publisher,  said  publisher  being  John  Howe,  Jr. 

"  The  Year,"  a  poem  in  three  cantos,  by  William  Leigh  Pierce,  was 
published  in  New  York  in  1813.  Appended  to  the  poem  are  seventy 
pages  of  historical  notes,  the  whole  production  being  intended  as  a 
poetical  history  of  the  times,  including  the  War  of  1812  so  far  as  it  had 
then  progressed. 

A  poetical  curio  is  "  The  Bladensburg  Races,"  written  shortly  after 
the  capture  of  Washington  City,  August  24,  1814.  The  poem  ridicules 
the  flight  of  President  Madison  and  household  to  Bladensburg,  and  the 
erudite  author  adds  an  illuminating  note :  "  Probably  it  is  not  generally 
known  that  the  flight  of  Mahomet,  the  flight  of  John  Gilpin  and  the 
flight  of  Bladensburg,  all  occurred  on  the  24th  of  August." 


COLLECTION    OF    HISTORICAL    MATERIAL,    WAR    OF    1812.  53 

The  local  bibliophile  or  collector  would  wish  me  to  mention  "  The 
Narrative  of  the  Life,  Travels  and  Adventures  of  Captain  Israel  Adams 
who  Lived  at  Liverpool,  Onondaga  County,  N.Y.,  the  man  who  during 
the  last  War  [1812]  Surprised  the  British  Lying  in  the  Bay  of 
Quoenti;  Who  Took  by  Strategem  the  Brig  Toronto  and  Took  Her 
to  Sackett's  Harbor,  and  for  whom  the  British  offered  a  Reward  of 
$500." 

Of  peculiar  local  interest  to  those  of  us  who  live  on  the  Niagara 
is  David  Thompson's  "  History  of  the  Late  War,"  etc.,  published  at 
Niagara,  Upper  Canada,  in  1832 ;  one  of  the  earliest  of  Upper  Canada 
imprints  and  a  better  one,  I  venture  to  say,  than  old  Niagara  could 
turn  out  to-day.  It  is  not  a  soothing  book  for  a  thin-skinned  American 
to  read.  If  it  should  fall  into  the  hands  of  such  a  singular,  not  to  say 
exceptional,  individual,  he  could  find  balm,  if  not,  indeed,  a  counter- 
irritant,  in  James  Butler's  "  American  Bravery  Displayed  in  the  Cap- 
ture of  1,400  vessels  of  war  and  commerce  since  the  Declaration  of 
War  by  the  President."  This  volume  of  322  pages,  published  in  1816, 
did  not  have  the  unanimous  endorsal  of  the  British  press. 

As  I  survey  the  literature  of  this  period  I  find  no  bolder  utterance, 
no  fiercer  defiance  of  Great  Britain's  "  Hordes,"  than  in  the  sonorous 
stanzas  of  some  of  our  gentle  poets.  Iambic  defiance,  unless  kindled 
by  a  grand  genius,  is  a  poor  sort  of  fireworks,  even  when  it  undertakes 
to  combine  patriotism  and  appreciation  of  natural  scenery.  Certainly 
something  might  be  expected  of  a  poet  who  sandwiches  Niagara  Falls 
in  between  bloody  battles  and  gives  us  the  magnificent  in  nature,  the 
gallant  in  warfare  and  the  loftiest  patriotism  in  purpose,  the  three 
strains  woven  in  a  triple  paean  of  passion,  ninety-four  duodecimo  pages 
in  length.  Such  a  work  was  offered  to  the  world  at  Baltimore  in  1818, 
with  this  title  page :  "  Battle  of  Niagara,  a  Poem  without  Notes,  and 
Goldau,  or  the  Maniac  Harper.  Eagles  and  Stars  and  Rainbows.  By 
Jehu  O'Cataract,  author  of  '  Keep  Cool.' '  I  have  never  seen  "  Keep 
Cool,"  but  it  must  be  very  different  from  the  "  Battle  of  Niagara,"  or 
it  belies  its  name.  The  fiery  Jehu  O'Cataract  was  John  Neal,  or 
"  Yankee  Neal,"  as  he  was  called. 

The  "  Battle  of  Niagara,"  he  informs  the  reader,  was  written  when 
he  was  a  prisoner ;  when  he  "  felt  the  victories  of  his  countrymen." 
The  poem  has  a  metrical  introduction  and  four  cantos,  in  which  is  told, 
none  too  lucidly,  the  story  of  the  battle  of  Niagara,  with  such  flights  of 
eagles,  scintillation  of  stars  and  breaking  of  rainbows,  that  no  quota- 
tion can  do  it  justice.  In  style  it  is  now  Miltonic,  now  reminiscent 
of  Walter  Scott.  The  opening  canto  is  mainly  an  apostrophe  to  the 


54  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

Bird,  and  a  vision  of  glittering  horsemen.  Canto  two  is  a  dissertation 
on  Lake  Ontario,  with  word-pictures  of  the  primitive  Indian.  The 
rest  of  the  poem  is  devoted  to  the  battle  near  the  great  cataract — and 
throughout  all  are  sprinkled  the  eagles,  stars  and  rainbows.  Do  not 
infer  from  this  that  the  production  is  wholly  bad ;  it  is  merely  a  good 
specimen  of  that  early  American  poetry  which  was  just  bad  enough  to 
escape  being  good. 

A  still  more  ambitious  work  is  "  The  Fredoniad,  or  Independence 
Preserved,"  an  epic  poem  by  Richard  Emmons,  a  Kentuckian,  after- 
wards a  physician  of  Philadelphia.  He  worked  on  it  for  ten  years, 
finally  printed  it  in  1826,  and  in  1830  got  it  through  a  second  edition, 
ostentatiously  dedicated  to  Lafayette.  "  The  Fredoniad  "  is  a  history 
of  the  War  of  1812  in  verse.  It  was  published  in  four  volumes;  it 
has  forty  cantos,  filling  1,404  duodecimo  pages,  or  a  total  length  of 
about  42,000  lines.  The  first  and  second  cantos  are  devoted  to  Hell, 
the  third  to  Heaven,  and  the  fourth  to  Detroit.  About  one-third  of 
the  whole  work  is  occupied  with  military  operations  on  the  Niagara 
frontier.  Nothing  from  Fort  Erie  to  Fort  Niagara  escapes  this  metre- 
machine.  The  Doctor's  poetic  feet  stretch  out  to  miles  and  leagues, 
but  not  a  single  verse  do  I  find  that  prompts  to  quotation;  though  I 
am  free  to  confess  I  have  not  read  them  all,  and  much  doubt  if  anyone, 
save  the  infatuated  author,  and  perhaps  a  long-suffering  proof- 
reader, ever  did  read  the  whole  of  "  The  Fredoniad." 

I  have  already  mentioned  several  very  rare  books  and  pamphlets; 
but  if  asked  to  designate  the  rarest  of  all  on  the  War  of  1812,  I  should 
name  a  fifteen-page  pamphlet,  published  without  title-page  at  the  Regi- 
mental Press,  Bungalore,  India,  dealing  with  the  relations  between 
British  agents  and  Indians  in  the  Northwest  after  the  Treaty  of  Ghent. 
But  twenty  copies  were  printed.  It  contains  letters  from  Lieut-Colonel 
McDowell  to  His  Excellency  Sir  F.  P.  Robinson,  Drummond  Island, 
September  24th,  1815,  and  later  dates;  and  an  account  of  the  pro- 
ceedings of  a  court  of  inquiry  held  to  investigate  charges,  preferred  by 
the  United  States  Government,  that  the  Indians  had  been  stimulated 
by  the  British  agents  to  a  continuance  of  hostilities  since  the  Peace. 
This  publication,  issued  three-quarters  of  a  century  or  so  after  the 
event,  from  a  regimental  press  in  India,  is  an  effort  to  show  that  the 
Indians  were  not  so  stimulated;  all  the  stimulus  they  received  from 
the  British  agents,  it  may  be  presumed,  was  of  an  entirely  different 
kind. 

The  field  of  biography  in  its  relation  to  our  general  subject  is  vast. 
Around  such  figures  as  Andrew  Jackson  and  William  Henry  Harrison 


COLLECTION    OF    HISTORICAL    MATERIAL,    WAR    OF    1812.  55 

I 

there  has  developed  a  mass  of  literature  which,  if  thoroughly  listed  and 
analyzed,  would  constitute  a  considerable  bibliography  in  itself.  There 
are  biographies  and  memoirs  of  most  of  the  British  admirals  and  other 
naval  and  military  commanders  in  active  service  during  this  period. 
In  our  list  must  be  included  the  life  stories  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  James 
Madison,  Lewis  Cass,  Joshua  Barney,  Commodore  Bainbridge,  Win- 
field  Scott,  Oliver  Hazard  Perry,  Henry  Clay,  Josiah  Quincy,  John 
Quincy  Adams,  George  Cabot,  and  many  other  makers  of  American 
history. 

Of  the  British  and  Canadian  officers  we  have  admirable  biographies, 
including  those  of  General  Brock,  Admiral  Broke,  Admiral  Sir  Edward 
Codrington,  and  others. 

The  Treaty  of  Ghent  is  the  subject  of  numerous  publications.  An 
excellent  account  of  the  proceedings  of  the  commissioners,  and  espe- 
cially of  the  difficulties  met  and  overcome  by  the  American  representa- 
tives, is  by  Thomas  Wilson,  in  the  Magazine  of  American  History, 
November,  1888.  A  most  interesting  work  on  this  subject  is  the  scarce 
quarto,  published  in  London  in  1850,  entitled  "  Memoir es  d'un 
Voyageur  qui  se  repose."  It  is  the  private  journal  and  correspondence 
of  a  diplomatist  in  the  secret  service  of  England.  He  is  here  designated 
by  the  pseudonym  of  "  Miller/'  and  appears  to  have  been  entrusted 
with  four  separate  special  missions  to  America,  one  of  which,  in  1814- 
15,  was  to  exchange  the  ratifications  of  the  Treaty  of  Ghent.  The 
volume  contains  a  mass  of  private  information  on  diplomatic  relations 
between  Great  Britain  and  the  United  States,  including  a  journal  of 
the  signing  of  the  Treaty  of  Ghent. 

A  noticeable,  not  to  say  notable,  feature  of  much  of  this  literature 
is  its  partisanship.  Especially  in  statistical  matters,  such  as  the 
numerical  strength  of  the  contending  forces,  the  number  of  guns  or  the 
weight  of  metal — matters  which  one  would  suppose  would  have  been 
settled  by  the  official  reports — there  has  existed  for  a  century,  and  still 
exists,  utterly  irreconcilable  divergence.  The  unbiased  student  of  this 
period,  who  seeks  only  to  learn  the  facts,  is  still  bewildered  and  in  doubt 
when  he  compares  American  with  Canadian  or  English  accounts.  If 
the  bitterness  and  rancour  of  the  old  books  has  abated  in  these  later  days 
of  courtesy  and  fair  speech,  the  divergence  of  record,  though  perhaps 
dispassionately  stated,  still  exists.  An  instance  is  the  battle  of  Lundy's 
Lane,  which  at  last  accounts  was  still  being  fought. 

It  may  not  be  a  wholly  whimsical  proposition  to  suggest,  as  a  fea- 
ture of  our  centenary  of  peace,  the  establishment  of  an  international 
commission — by  this  Society,  say,  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  American 


56  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

Historical  Association  on  the  other — whose  task  should  be,  if  possible, 
the  production  of  a  simply-told  history  of  the  War  of  1812,  which 
should  meet  with  equal  commendation  as  a  truthful  and  unprejudiced 
chronicle  on  both  sides  of  the  border.  But  perhaps  I  suggest  the  impos- 
sible. 

I  could  say  much  of  the  ever-lengthening  list  of  modern  studies  of 
this  or  that  phase  of  the  war;  such,  for  instance,  as  Nicholas  Murray 
Butler's  "  Influence  of  the  War  of  1812  upon  the  Consolidation  of  the 
American  Union,"  Captain  A.  T.  Mahan's  "  Sea  Power  in  its  Relation 
to  the  War  of  1812,"  and  very  many  others,  usually  revealing  a  better 
grasp  of  the  significance  of  events  than  the  earlier  works,  and  usually, 
too,  written  in  a  better  temper.  Not  least  among  these  modern  studies 
is  the  notable  group  of  papers  which  at  this  meeting  we  listen  to  with 
great  satisfaction. 


IV. 

DESPATCH   FKOM    COLONEL   LETHBRIDGE    TO   MAJOR- 
GENERAL  BROCK. 

BY    LlEUT.-CoLONEL    COLE,    BROCKVILLE,    ONT. 

t 

^.  Kingston,  August  10th,  1812. 

My  letter  to  Colonel  Cartwright  from  Prescott  will  have  apprised 
you  of  the  reason  of  my  sudden  departure  from  this — and  most  griev- 
iously  mortified  I  was  on  my  arrival  below  to  find  the  Julia  Schooner 
had  the  singular  good  fortune  of  effecting  her  escape.  My  decided 
purpose  was,  in  the  event  of  our  vessels  being  detained  at  Brockville  by 
a  westerly  wind  till  the  return  of  Lieut.  Fitzgibbons  with  the  bateaux 
from  Kingston,  to  have  attempted  the  Capture  of  the  Julia  by  an  attack 
on  Ogdensburg — with  our  vessels — aided  by  a  detachment  on  land — 
but  my  instructions  to  the  Captains  were  that  in  case  a  strong  easterly 
wind  sprang  up  in  the  interim  they  were  then  to  proceed  to  Kingston, 
having,  of  course,  in  my  mind  your  directions  for  the  Earl  Moira  to 
proceed  to  Niagara.  An  easterly  wind  did  spring  up  and  the  vessels 
proceeded  for  this  place. 

The  enclosed  report  of  the  deposition  of  a  deserter  from  the  enemy 
will  in  some  degree  illustrate  their  situation  at  Ogdensburg  and  I  am 
much  inclined  to  credit  the  material  parts  of  it  from 'the  manner  in 
which  it  was  related.  I  proceeded  down  the  river  to  Williamstown  in 
Glengarry  looking  at  the  different  corps  of  militia  as  I  passed.  Of 
the  Counties  of  Grenville,  Dundas,  Stormont  and  Glengarry,  I  feel 
sincere  satisfaction  in  noticing  their  uniform  zeal  to  exert  their  best 
endeavours  for  the  defence  of  their  country  though  as  yet  almost  in  the 
infancy  of  discipline,  with  the  execution  of  the  manual  and  platoon 
exercise — owing  to  the  general  want  of  instructors.  But  their  wants 
and  privations  are  many,  but  notwithstanding  that,  at  Prescott 
they  were  not  only  without  blankets  but  even  straw  was  not  to  be  pro- 
cured. The  alacrity  of  both  officers  and  men  to  assist  in  erecting  a 
stockaded  fort  with  three  embrasures  at  each  of  two  angles  was  highly 
meritorious,  and  as  no  allowance  had  been  made  for  their  trouble  in 
any  shape  and  under  the  privations  it  was  represented  to  me  they  were 

57 


58  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

experiencing,  I  ventured  to  order  an  issue  of  rum  of  a  pint  per  man. 
This  issue  I  trust  will  meet  with  approbation  under  .this  singular 
case  of  His  Excellency  the  Commander  of  the  Forces  and  yourself. 
The  Dundas  and  Stormont  Militia  are  very  desirous  of  having  a  troop 
of  cavalry  established  and  being  persuaded  of  its  utility,  both  as  pa- 
troles  and  for  the  purpose  of  carrying  dispatches  along  the  communica- 
tion, I  am  desirous  of  seconding  their  propositions.  It  seems  a  Mr. 
Forrester  has  been  at  York  and  made  application  on  the  subject,  and 
was  referred  by. you  to  Major  General  Shaw,  who  did  not  happen  to 
extend  his  journey  so  far  down.  But  though  I  should  recommend  Mr. 
Forrester  for  being  one  of  the  officers  of  the  troop  I  do  not  feel  en- 
couraged by  the  accounts  I  hear  of  him  (though  no  impeachment  on 
his  loyalty)  to  suggest  his  having  the  command  of  the  troops. 

The  Dundas  Militia  are  unhappily  in  a  state  of  schism  at  least 
between  the  two  field  officers,  Col.  McDonnell  and  Major  Mackay.  The 
former  certainly  much  advanced  in  years,  the  latter  very  shrewd  and 
I  believe  extremely  able  and  zealous,  though  inflexibly  stern.  I  beg 
leave  to  propose  my  way  of  healing  the  breach, — the  substitution  of 
Colonel  Thomas  Fraser  to  the  command  of  the  Dundas  Militia,  an 
arrangement  I  have  been  assured  would  be  agreeable  to  Col.  McLean  (?) 
and  I  dare  say  would  not  be  ill  taken  by  Major  Mackay.  The  Cornwall 
Militia  are  very  well  attended  to  by  Col.  *.  He  has  been 

obliged  to  hire  a  store  for  the  accommodation  of  his  men  at  the  mod- 
erate rate -of  20  per  annum,  which  by  properly  dividing  by  berth,  is 
adequate  to  contain  the  whole  of  their  present  number  embodied ;  more 
arms  will  be  supplied  to  him  when  our  means  are  more  abundant.  No 
blankets,  but  a  supply  of  straw.  He  has  been  obliged  to  purchase  some 
camp  kettles.  The  flank  companies  of  the  Glengarry  Militia  partly 
assembled  at  McLaughlin's.  Colonel  McMillan  has  been  under  the  in- 
dispensable necessity,  from  the  situation  being  destitute  of  other  re- 
sources, of  contracting  for  shed  to  cover  his  men,  to  build  ovens,  and  I 
authorized  his  having  a  supply  of  kettles,  a  surgeon  to  attend  the  sick, 
and  I  have  sanctioned  his  having  the  assistance  of  Mr.  Wilkinson,  from 
Cornwall  until  your  pleasure  is  ascertained.  I  do  intend  removing  a 
part  of  the  flank  companies  of  the  Glengarry  to  Cornwall  as  a  point 
more  material  to  be  guarded  than  the  mouth  of  the  Eiver  Le  Kaisin. 
T  have  been  obliged  to  order  them  some  ketttles.  There  are  four  points 
in  the  river  more  vulnerable  from  musketry  than  others  from  five  to 
eight  hundred  yards  distant  from  the  American  shore  between  the 
Rapid  Plat  and  Cornwall.  The  best  defence  for  which  would  appear 

*No  name  given. 


DESPATCH:  COL.  LETHBRIDGE  TO  MAJOR-GENERAL  BROCK.        59 

to  be  two  or  three  light  pieces  of  flying  artillery,  which  the  inhabitants 
would  undertake  to  furnish  the  horses  for.  But  of  this  and  the  number 
of  militia  and  the  number  of  arms  received,  a  more  detailed  report 
shall  be  forwarded  to  you  at  Niagara,  to  which  place  I  apprehend  you 
are  now  removed  and  will  probably  reach  you  before  this.  I  confess  I 
have  had  a  most  fatiguing  week  and  request  you  will  refer  any  inac- 
curacies in  this  to  that  cause. 

I  have  the  honor  to  transmit  a  plan  of  the  proposed  work  at  Point 
Henry  which  I  am  the  more  convinced  of  the  utility  of.  You  are,  of 
course,  apprised  of  the  approach  of  some  regular  troops  to  those  quar- 
ters which  I  shall  permit  to  come  on  here  in  the  first  instance  unless  I 
receive  any  instructions  from  you  to  the  contrary,  I  have  no  doubt  that 
a  proportion  of  those  troops  are  intended  for  Prescott  and  I  especially 
reported  the  necessity  of  a  force  there.  The  schooner  Julia  was  lying 
very  quietly  in  the  secure  harbor  of  Ogdensburg,  and  afforded  not  the 
least  molestation  to  the  large  brigade  of  Batteaux  under  Lieut.  Fitz- 
gibbons  on  his  return.  Colonel  McLean  is  erecting  a  block  house  on  a 
point  about  twelve  miles  above  Cornwall  for  accommodation  for  his 
men  as  a  Centrical  rendezvous  for  a  part  of  them  and  an  accommoda- 
tion with  all.  The  cost  of  which  will  be  but  trifling,  it  being  done  by 
the  militiamen  as  far  as  labor  is  concerned. 

There  are,  I  am  sorry  to  say,  several  exceptions  to  universal  loyalty 
in  the  County  of  Leeds  and  I  wish  to  be  honored  with  your  instruc- 
tions in  respect  of  men  who  have  lived  as  peaceable  inhabitants  but  who 
being  called  on  refuse  taking  the  oath  of  allegiance.  To  send  them 
across  the  river  is  perhaps  accomplishing  the  very  object  that  they  have 
at  heart.  I  fell  in  with  General  Sheaffe  at  the  mouth  of  the  Eiver  Le 
Raisin  and  I  returned  here  sooner,  perhaps,  than  I  should  otherwise 
have  done. 

The  Royal  George  is  returned  to  this  place;  she  had  been  some 
way  down  the  river  and  very  near  cutting  off  the  Three  Durham 
Gun  Boats.     She  will  sail  on  the  look-out  to-morrow. 
I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c., 

Your  most  H.  Servant, 

LETHBRIDGE,  COLONEL. 
To  Major  General  Brock. 


V. 

MILITAKY  MOVEMENTS  IN  EASTERN  ONTARIO  DURING 
THE  WAR  OF  1812.* 

BY    LlEUT.-CoLONEL    W.    S.    BUELL,    BllOCKVILLE,    O^T. 

Although  war  was  declared  by  the  United  States  on  18th  June,  1812, 
official  notice  was  not  received  by  Sir  George  Prevost,  the  Governor- 
General  of  Canada,  until  7th  July.  Private  messages  from  New  York, 
however,  arrived  about  25th  of  June.  On  the  29th  of  June,  eight 
schooners  that  were  in  Ogdensburg  Harbor  attempted  to  escape  to  Lake 
Ontario.  Mr.  Dunham  Jones,  who  resided  near  Maitland,  saw  the 
movement,  and  fully  appreciating  the  advantage  which  would  result  to 
the  British  interests  if  this  fleet  could  be  prevented  from  reaching 
Lake  Ontario,  gathered  a  company  of  volunteers  and  pursued  them  in 
rowboats,  overtaking  them  at  the  foot  of  the  islands  just  above  Brock- 
ville,  apparently  about  Big  Island.  Two  of  the  vessels,  the  Island 
Packet  and  the  Sophia,  were  captured;  the  crews  were  landed  on  an 
island  and  the  vessels  burned.  The  remainder  of  the  fleet  made  their 
way  back  to  Ogdensburg  as  fast  as  they  could  go. 

At  the  opening  of  the  war  the  American  plan  of  campaign  was  to 
invade  Canada  with  three  great  armies,  viz.,  the  Army  of  the  West  on 
the  Detroit  Frontier,  the  Army  of  the  Centre  on  the  Niagara  Frontier, 
and  the  Army  of  the  North  from  Lake  Champlain. 

The  Army  of  the  West  under  General  Hull  was  captured  at  Detroit 
by  General  Brock;  and  the  Army  of  the  Centre,  under  General  Van 
Rensselaer,  was  defeated  at  Queenston  Heights.  The  Army  of  the  North 
was  the  most  pretentious  of  the  three.  It  was  composed  of  10,000 
troops  and  was  commanded  by  General  Dearborn,  the  Commander-in- 
Chief  of  the  United  States  army.  It  mobilized  at  Lake  Champlain 
with  the  evident  intention  of  marching  straight  on  Montreal.  Noth- 
ing, however,  was  attempted  further  than  a  few  unimportant  and  un- 
successful skirmishes  and  then  it  retired  to  safe  winter  quarters  at 
Plattsburg. 

Early  in  the  winter  of  1813  a  detachment  of  the  garrison  of  Ogdens- 
burg, under  Captain  Forsythe,  made  a  night  attack  upon  Gananoque, 

*  Read  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Ontario  Historical  Society  at  Brockville,  Ont,  1910. 

60 


MILITARY    MOVEMENTS    IN    EASTERN    ONTARIO,    WAR    OF    1812.        61 

which  at  that  time  consisted  of  a  country  tavern  and  a  sawmill,  with  an 
adjoining  log  house.  The  enemy  wounded  a  lady  and  carried  off  a 
few  pigs  and  poultry.  Yet  the  event  was  represented  as  a  gallant 
action. 

On  the  night  of  the  6th  of  February,  1813,  Captain  Forsythe,  with 
200  of  his  command  and  some  so-called  gentlemen  volunteers,  made  an 
attack  on  Brockville,  coming  across  from  Morristown  on  the  ice.  At 
that  time  Brockville  was  but  a  struggling  village.  It  was  considered 
of  no  consequence  from  a  military  standpoint  and  there  was  posted 
there  but  one  company  of  the  Leeds  Militia.  I  am  sorry  to  say  that 
the  captain,  officers  and  men  of  this  company,  excepting  one  sentry, 
were  sound  asleep  in  their  beds  when  the  attack  was  made.  Forsythe 
had  a  six-pounder  about  the  centre  of  the  river  on  the  ice.  The  sentry 
was  wounded,  the  officers  and  about  20  militiamen  were  captured  as 
were  also  about  thirty  residents.  The  detachment  and  gentlemen  vol- 
unteers proceeded  to  break  into  and  plunder  the  houses  in  the  village 
and  to  throw  open  the  jail.  They  carried  off  provisions,  horses,  and 
cattle.  Among  the  residents  captured  were  several  veterans  of  the 
American  Revolutionary  War,  who  according  to  the  custom  of  the  time 
had  been  given  honorary  military  titles  by  their  neighbors.  Forsythe 
consequently  reported  having  taken  as  his  prisoners  so  many  Majors, 
Captains,  etc.,  and  so  many  rifles,  leading  his  readers  to  infer  that  he 
had  captured  a  large  military  force.  As  a  matter  of  fact  the  bulk  of 
the  rifles  he  took  were  securely  boxed  up  en  route  to  the  force  at  Pres- 
cott,  to  which  force  most  of  the  able-bodied  men  of  the  village  were 
attached. 

The  force  at  Prescott  was  about  500  strong,  under  the  command  of 
Colonel  Pearson.  He  sent  Major  Macdonell  of  the  Glengarry  Fen- 
cibles,  Light  Infantry  (known  as  '"Red  George"),  to  proceed  with  a 
flag  of  truce  to  Ogdensburg  to  remonstrate  against  such  expeditions. 
Macdonell  was  received  by  the  officers  at  Ogdensburg  with  extreme 
discourtesy,  with  taunts  and  boasting.  Forsythe,  the  officer  in  com- 
mand, was  no  whit  behind  his  subordinates  in  insolence,  and  suggested 
that  the  two  forces  should  try  their  strength  on  the  ice.  Macdonell 
replied  that  in  two  days  he,  himself,  would  be  in  command  at  Prescott 
and  that  then  he  would  be  happy  to  accommodate  them. 

Two  days  later  Macdonell  succeeded  to  the  command  at  Prescott, 
but  on  that  same  evening  Sir  George  Prevost  arrived  there  on  his  way 
from  Quebec  to  Kingston.  The  British  Government  had  not  even  by 
this  time  relinquished  the  idea  that  the  United  States  did  not  really 
intend  to  fight  with  their  own  kith  and  kin  and  had  impressed  their 


62  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

views  upon  Prevost.  Consequently,  when  Macdonell  reported  to  him 
all  that  had  taken  place  and  asked  authority  to  attack  Ogdensburg, 
Prevost  would  not  entertain  his  request,  saying  .that  he  did  not  desire 
by  any  hostile  acts  to  keep  up  a  spirit  of  enmity. 

Macdonell  then  tried  another  method,  and  a  few  hours  later  told 
Prevost  that  two  men  had  deserted  and  gone  over  to  Ogdensburg,  and 
that  in  all  probability  Forsythe  would  by  that  time  know  of  his,  the 
Governor-General's,  presence,  in  Prescott.  He  suggested  that  the  Gov- 
ernor-General should  at  once  start  for  Kingston  with  a  small  escort 
while  he,  Macdonell,  would  make  a  demonstration  in  force  on  the  ice, 
to  keep  the  enemy  occupied.  The  Governor  finally  reluctantly  con- 
sented and  started  at  daybreak  on  22nd  February,  1813,  for  Kingston, 
and  Major  Macdonell  at  once  commenced  arrangements  to  meet 
Forsythe  as  promised. 

Sir  George  Prevost  evidently  repented  after  leaving  Prescott,  for 
on  arriving  at  Brockville  he  wrote  a  note  (which  he  headed  "  Flint's 
Inn"),  to  Macdonell  instructing  him  on  no  account  to  exceed  his 
instructions  and  do  anything  of  a  hostile  nature.  This  note  he 
despatched  by  a  galloper,  who,  fortunately,  was  too  late.  Macdonell 
received  the  note  in  Ogdensburg  about  eight  o'clock  a.m. 

At  Ogdensburg  there  was  an  old  French  Fort,  once  known  as  Fort 
Presentation.  It  was  situated  just  south  of  where  the  lighthouse  now 
stands.  The  village  was  on  the  east  side  of  the  Oswegatchie  River, 
which  flows  into  the  St.  Lawrence  at  that  point,  and  protected  by  a  bat- 
tery of  heavy  field  artillery  stationed  on  an  eminence  near  the  shore. 
Forsythe  had  under  his  command  at  Ogdensburg  between  five  hundred 
and  one  thousand  men,  His  own  report  says  five  hundred,  while  Mac- 
donell estimated  them  at  one  thousand. 

Macdonell  had  a  force  of  480  officers  and  men.  The  composition 
of  his  force  represented  many  portions  of  the  Empire.  Owing  to  the 
state  of  the  ice,  which  is  said  to  have  been  quite  weak  and  dangerous 
for  so  many  to  cross  at  once,  and  owing  also  to  the  position  of  the  enemy 
in  the  old  Fort,  the  force  was  divided  into  two  columns.  The  right, 
commanded  by  Captain  Jenkins,  of  New  Brunswick,  was  composed  of 
a  flank  company  of  the  Glengarry  Light  Infantry  Fencibles,  and  70 
Canadian  Militia.  Captain  Jenkins'  orders  were  to  check  the  enemy's 
left  and  intercept  his  retreat,  while  the  left  column  under  Colonel  Mac- 
donell himself  (who  was  now  Lieutenant-Colonel,  in  command  of  the 
Eastern  District  of  Upper  Canada),  moved  towards  his  position  in  the 
village.  This  left  column  was  composed  of  120  of  the  King's  Regi- 
ment (Liverpool),  some  of  the  41st  (Welsh),  40  of  the  Royal  New- 


MILITARY    MOVEMENTS    IN    EASTERN    ONTARIO,    WAR    OF    1812.        63 

foundlanders,  and  about  200  Canadian  militia,  among  whom  were 
some  French-Canadians. 

When  approaching  the  south  side  of  the  river  the  snow  was  found 
to  be  very  deep,  and  the  advance  of  both  columns  was  retarded  and 
both  became  exposed,  particularly  the  right,  to  a  heavy  cross-fire  from 
the  batteries  of  the  enemy  for  a  longer  period  than  anticipated.  But 
pushing  on  rapidly,  the  left  column  gained  the  right  bank  of  the  river 
under  the  direct  fire  of  the  enemy's  artillery  and  line  of  musketry  and 
their  right  was  turned  by  a  detachement  of  the  King's  Regiment,  their 
artillery  was  captured  by  a  bayonet  charge,  and  their  infantry  driven 
through  the  town.  Some  escaped  across  the  Oswegatchie  into  the  fort, 
others  fled  to  the  woods  or  sought  refuge  in  the  houses,  from  whence 
they  kept  up  such  a  volume  of  fire  that  it  became  necessary  to  dislodge 
them  with  our  guns,  which  now  came  up  from  the  banks  of  the  river 
where  they  had  stuck  in  the  deep  snow. 

Macdonell  had  now  gained  the  high  ground  on  the  east  side  of 
the  Oswegatchie  (or  Black  River,  as  it  was  then  called),  and  was  in 
a  position  to  assault  the  fort,  but  his  men  were  exhausted  by  the^rapid 
rush  across  the  river,  through  the  snow  and  up  the  bank.  He  gained 
a  breathing  spell  for  them  by  sending  in  under  a  flag  of  truce  a  demand 
for  unconditional  surrender.  To  this  Forsythe  replied  that  there  must 
first  be  some  more  fighting. 

During  this  time  Captain  Jenkins  had  led  on  his  column  and  had 
encountered  deep  snow,  when  he  became  exposed  to  a  heavy  fire  from 
seven  guns,  which  he  at  once  attempted  to  take  with  the  bayonet,  al- 
though they  were  covered  by  200  of  the  enemy's  best  troops. 

Advancing  as  rapidly  as  he  could  through  the  deep  snow  he  ordered 
a  charge  and  had  not  proceeded  many  paces  before  his  left  arm  was 
shattered  by  a  grape  shot;  but  still  he  undauntedly  ran  on  at  the  head 
of  his  men,  when  his  right  arm  was  shot;  still  he  ran  on  cheering  his 
men  to  the  assault  until  exhausted  by  pain  and  loss  of  blood  he  fell, 
unable  to  move.  His  company  gallantly  continued  the  charge  under 
Lieutenant  McAulay,  but  had  come  to  a  standstill,  stuck  in  the  snow 
just  at  the  moment  when  Macdonell's  column  came  swarming  over 
the  Oswegatchie  river  headed  by  a  Highland  company  of  militia 
under  'Captain  Eustace  and  rushed  the  fort.  The  enemy  retreated 
rapidly  by  the  opposite  entrance  and  escaped  into  the  woods,  our  right 
column  being  unable  to  intercept  them. 

Among  others  mentioned  in  the  despatch  of  Colonel  Macdonell 
besides  Captains  Jenkins  and  Eustace  we  find  Colonel  Fraser,  who 
was  in  command  of  the  militia,  an  ancestor  of  Colonel  R.  D.  Fraser, 


64  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

a  former  well-known  officer  of  Brockville.  The  British  losses  were  8 
killed  and  52  wounded,  among  the  latter  being  Colonel  Macdonell 
himself. 

The  American  losses  were  20  killed  and  150  wounded,  while  four 
officers  and  70  privates  were  taken  prisoners.  Eleven  guns  were  cap- 
tured, among  them  being  two  twelve-pounders,  surrendered  by  Bur- 
goyne  in  1777.  There  was  also  a  large  quantity  of  ordnance  and  mili- 
tary stores  of  all  descriptions.  Two  barracks  were  burned,  also  two 
armed  schooners,  and  two  large  gun-boats,  which  being  frozen  in  the 
ice,  could  not  be  moved.  The  honor  of  this  action  was  not  tarnished 
by  any  looting  in  spite  of  the  way  the  Americans  had  plundered 
Gananoque  and  Brockville.  Macdonell  would  not  let  his  followers 
help  themselves  to  so  much  as  a  twist  of  -tobacco ;  he  even  paid  American 
teamsters  four  dollars  a  day  for  their  labor  in  hauling  the  military 
stores  across  to  Prescott. 

During  the  following  spring  and  summer  success  varied.  The 
Americans  captured  York  (now  Toronto),  then  suffered  humiliating 
defeat  at  Stoney  Creek  and  Beaver  Dams.  Again  the  United  States 
Navy  were  successful  on  Lake  Erie  and  their  army  followed  it  up 
by  beating  Proctor  in  the  Battle  of  the  Thames,  where  Tecumseh,  the 
great  Indian  chief,  is  supposed  to  have  been  killed.  Then  they  drove 
our  forces  in  the  Niagara  Peninsula  back  to  Burlington  Heights. 

Things  looked  gloomy  for  Canada. 

The  Americans  had  still  their  Army  of  the  North  at  Lake  Cham- 
plain,  now  under  General  Hampton.  It  had  for  nearly  a  year  been 
constantly  drilled  under  Major-General  Izard,  who  had  served  two 
campaigns  in  the  French  army.  These  troops  were  all  well  uniformed 
and  equipped,  and  the  most  efficient  regular  army  which  the  United 
States  were  able  to  send  into  the  field  during  the  war. 

At  this  time  another  army  of  from  ten  to  twelve  thousand  (Ameri- 
can reports  admit  ten  thousand),  were  assembled  at  Grenadier  Island, 
eighteen  miles  below  Sackett's  Harbor,  with  a  huge  fleet  of  boats  called 
the  Invincible  Armada  of  the  St.  Lawrence. 

It  was  planned  that  with  the  aid  of  their  navy  in  Lake  Ontario, 
under  Admiral  Chauncey,  they  were  to  capture  Kingston,  then  come 
down  the  river,  as  a  mere  matter  of  detail  take  Prescott  en  route,  and 
uniting  with  Hampton's  army  near  St.  Regis,  sweep  on  to  Montreal 
and  so  wind  up  matters.  There  was  to  be  a  triumphal  entry  into 
Montreal  where  they  would  take  up  comfortable  winter  quarters. 

Such  was  the  plan,  but  the  best  laid  plans  of  mice  and  men  gang 
aft  aglee. 


MILITARY    MOVEMENTS    IN    EASTERN    ONTARIO,    WAR    OF    1812.        65 

First  let  us  follow  the  fate  of  Hampton  and  his  Army  of  the  North. 
He  was  at  Burlington,  Vermont.  His  intentions  were  unknown  to  the 
British.  It  was  supposed  that  they  were  to  march  up  the  valley  of 
the  Richelieu  to  Montreal.  A  corps  of  observation  was  sent  out  under 
Colonel  de  Salaberry  with  instructions  to  move  parallel  to  the  American 
army,  breaking  up  and  obstructing  the  roads  in  his  front  and  molesting 
him  in  every  possible  way. 

De  Salaberry  was  a  French-Canadian  gentleman  who  had  entered 
the  British  army  at  an  early  age  and  having  served  eleven  years 
returned  to  Canada.  He  raised  a  regiment  of  Canadian  Voltigeurs. 

The  Eastern  Townships  during  the  Old  Regime  remained  an  al- 
most unbroken  wilderness.  During  the  "War  of  Independence' '  this 
wilderness  proved  an  important  barrier  against  invasion  and  in  the 
War  of  1812  materially  retarded  the  operations  of  the  hostile  armies. 

Colonel  Macdonell  (Red  George),  had  lately  been  appointed  to 
the  command  of  a  regiment  of  French-Canadian  Fencibles,  and  was 
at  Kingston  organizing  and  drilling  them.  On  October  20th,  Sir 
George  Prevost,  then  at  Kingston,  heard  rumors  of  approaching 
activity  on  Hampton's  part  and  determined  to  go  down  to  the 
Beauharnois  frontier  to  see  how  matters  were.  Just  as  he  was  about 
to  start  at  noon  he  met  Macdonell  and  asked  him  how  soon  he  hoped 
to  have  his  corps  in  shape  for  active  service.  "As  soon  as  they  have 
finished  dinner,  sir,"  was  the  reply,  so  Prevost  ordered  him  to  bring 
them  down  to  the  assistance  of  De  Salaberry,  telling  him  of  the  infor- 
mation which  he  had  received ;  and  Prevost  started  on  his  journey. 

Macdonell  promptly  procured  boats,  embarked  his  regiment,  ran 
down  the  river  and  rapids,  crossed  Lake  St.  Francis  in  a  storm,  then 
threaded  twenty  miles  of  forest  in  single  file  in  the  dead  of  night  and 
arrived  just  in  time  to  assist  De  Salaberry,  having  travelled  170  miles 
by  water  and  twenty  by  land  in  sixty  hours,  actual  travel,  and  not  one 
man  absent. 

In  the  meantime  Hampton  had  left  Burlington  and  marched  on 
and  captured  Odelltown  in  apparently  a  straight  line  towards  Mon- 
treal, but  instead  of  proceeding  directly  he  turned  partially  back  and 
then  westerly  until  he  arrived  at  Chateauguay  Four  Corners,  just 
on  the  American  side  of  the  border.  He  arrived  there  on  the  24th  of 
September  and  awaited  orders.  Four  roads  converged  at  this  point, 
running,  one  towards  Lake  Champlain,  another  westerly  towards  Og- 
densburg,  another  followed  the  Chateauguay  River  northeasterly  to 
the  St.  Lawrence  at  Chateauguay  and  another  more  easterly. 

While  Hampton  remained  at  Four  Corners,  De  Salaberry  could 
not  divine  which  route  he  was  likely  to  take.  Hampton  received  orders 


66  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

on  21st  October  to  move  towards  the  St.  Lawrence.  De  Salaberry,  in 
order  to  reconnoitre,  attacked  Hampton's  outposts  and  evidently 
obtained  reliable  information  that  Hampton  meant  to  advance  along 
the  Chateauguay.  Accordingly  he  took  up  a  position  on  the  northern 
bank  of  the  Chateauguay  along  which  the  road  ran,  his  left  resting  on 
the  river,  his  front  and  right  guarded  by  a  series  of  natural  ditches  or 
ravines  strengthened  by  rough  barricades.  He  constructed  an  outwork 
of  fallen  trees  across  the  road  about  a  mile  in  advance  of  the  main 
defences,  in  order  to  give  a  first  halt  to  the  advancing  enemy.  The 
weak  point  of  the  position  was  that  just  below  it  there  was  a  ford,  by 
which,  if  not  securely  guarded,  the  Americans,  if  they  came  down  the 
south  bank,  could  cross  and  take  the  defenders  in  the  rear.  But  he 
placed  a  company  of  his  Voltigeurs  in  a  hidden  spot  on  this  bank. 

On  the  23rd  and  24th  Hampton  had  succeeded  in  establishing  a 
line  of  communication  with  Ogdensburg,  and  having  brought  up  his 
artillery  and  stores,  on  the  25th  he  matured  his  scheme  of  attack. 
One  column  was  to  cross  the  Chateauguay,  to  advance  along  its  southern 
bank,  to  seize  the  ford  and  recross  in  rear  of  the  enemy ;  the  main  force 
was  to  advance  on  the  northern  bank  through  six  or  seven  miles  of  open 
country  into  the  woodland  where  De  Salaberry  was  posted,  and  charge 
his  position  by  a  frontal  attack.  The  column  on  the  southern  bank, 
3,000  strong,  under  Colonel  Purdy,  started  on  the  night  of  the  25th. 
On  the  morning  of  the  26th  the  main  body  of  about  4,000,  under  Gen- 
eral Izard,  regarded  as  the  ablest  officer  of  the  United  States  forces, 
moved  slowly  forward  along  the  road  on  the  northern  bank  of  the  river. 
De  Salaberry  had  under  his  immediate  command  300  French- 
Canadians,  composed  of  some  of  his  Voltigeurs  and  some  Beauharnois 
militia,  and  also  fifty  Indians  under  Captain  Lamothe.  In  reserve  he 
had  Colonel  MacdonelPs  Regiment  of  French-Canadian  Fencibles,  600 
strong.  With  the  exception  of  Colonel  Macdonell  and  Captains  Fer- 
guson and  Daly  there  was  not  a  person  of  British  blood  on  the  field. 

De  Salaberry  was  without  artillery  or  cavalry  at  any  time,  while 
Hampton  had  180  cavalry  and  ten  field  guns.  Purdy 's  column  was 
first  engaged  by  a  handful  of  Beauharnois  militia,  who  were  pushed 
back,  and  Purdy  made  for  the  ford,  expecting  to  occupy  it  with  little 
opposition,  but  a  company  of  Colonel  Macdonell's  regiment  under 
Captain  Daly  had  been  sent  across  the  river  and  received  him  with  a 
well-directed  fire.  It  is  stated  that  Macdonell  had  taught  his  men  to 
shoot  while  kneeling — this  was  apparently  something  new  in  those  days. 
On  this  occasion  it  appears  to  have  worked  well.  Even  so,  however, 


MILITARY    MOVEMENTS    IN    EASTERN    ONTARIO,    WAR    OF    1812.        67 

Daly  had  to  retire  before  the  Americans  and  was  himself  severely 
wounded.  Immediately  above  the  ford  the  river  took  a  sharp  bend 
towards  the  east,  and  it  was  just  at  this  bend  that  De  Salaberry  had 
posted  his  company  in  hiding.  Purdy  was  eagerly  pressing  Daly's 
company  back  when  this  company  of  Voltigeurs  suddenly  poured  a  volley 
into  his  flank.  The  surprise  was  perfect — his  column  stopped,  and 
the  firing  on  his  front  and  flank  became  heavier ;  at  the  same  moment 
many  British  bugles  from  many  directions  were  heard  blowing  the 
advance,  and  loud  Indian  cries  came  floating  across  the  river.  He 
thought  he  was  opposed  by  thousands,  and  believing  it  impossible  to 
cross  the  ford  against  such  opposition  he  ordered  a  retreat,  but  even 
when  he  got  out  of  range  of  our  forces  the  firing  on  his  column  did  not 
cease,  for  an  excited  body  of  Americans  on  the  other  side  of  the  river, 
mistaking  their  identity,  fired  several  furious  volleys  into  them  before 
the  mistake  was  apparent. 

Meanwhile  De  Salaberry  and  his  300  Voltigeurs  were  out  about  a 
mile  in  advance  to  meet  the  main  body  of  the  enemy,  and  along  they 
(the  enemy)  came  with  cavalry  and  artillery. 

A  small  working  party  first  met  them  and  retired  into  a  line  of 
skirmishers ;  these  made  Izard  deploy  into  line,  and  the  working  party 
then  retired  behind  the  abattis  where  De  Salaberry  was  stationed.  A 
heavy  fire  was  opened  on  both  sides.  The  Voltigeurs — 300  of  them 
against  4,000 — at  one  time  broke  and  started  to  bolt,  all  but  one  man 
and  a  boy.  The  man  was  De  Salaberry,  and  the  boy  was  a  bugler  whom 
De  Salaberry  had  grabbed  by  the  collar  and  forced  to  sound  the  advance. 
Macdonell,  back  in  the  reserve,  heard  the  bugle,  and,  interpreting  it 
as  a  demand  for  support,  caused  his  own  bugles  to  sound  and  his  men 
to  cheer;  he  sent  the  buglers  through  the  woods  with  instructions  to 
separate  and  to  continue  blowing;  he  also  called  upon  the  Indians  to 
yell  with  all  their  strength,  and  he  rushed  forward  with  his  Fencibles 
to  De  Salaberry's  assistance,  the  Voltigeurs  going  back  with  him. 

The  opposition  then  put  up  against  the  United  States  force  was  so 
brisk  that  with  the  cries  and  bugle  sounds  they  hesitated,  then  halted. 
In  such  a  crisis  to  halt  was  to  court  defeat,  and  shortly  afterwards  they 
broke  and  retired,  a  vigorous  fire  following  them.  There  was  no 
attempt  to  reform  or  to  return  the  attack.  Hampton  believed  that  he 
had  been  opposed  by  a  force  of  7,000.  Upwards  of  ninety  bodies  and 
graves  were  found  upon  the  right  bank  of  the  river,  and  also  a  con- 
siderable number  of  muskets,  knapsacks,  etc.,  showing  the  confusion 


68  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

with  which  Hampton's  column  retreated.  Twenty  prisoners  were  cap- 
tured. The  Canadian  loss  was  two  killed  and  sixteen  wounded. 
Hampton  retreated  with  his  full  force  to  Chateauguay  Four  Corners^ 
harassed  by  the  Canadians  and  Indians,  100  odd  more  of  whom  had 
arrived.  On  the  llth  November  Hampton  retired  to  Plattsburg,  and 
thus  ended  the  invasion  of  Canada  by  the  Army  of  the  North. 

Returning  now  to  Grenadier  Island,  where  Wilkinson  had  finally 
on  1st  November  mobilized  his  army  of  10,000.  He  was  in  blissful 
ignorance  of  Hampton's  defeat  and  was  acting  under  the  full  belief 
that  Hampton's  army  was  advancing  victoriously  through  Lower  Canada 
to  join  him  at  St.  Regis.  Wilkinson  had  been  greatly  delayed  by  rough 
weather,  which  had  for  some  time  prevented  some  of  his  troops  leaving 
Sackett's  Harbor  to  join  him  at  Grenadier  Island. 

On  1st  November,  while  the  United  States  fleet  on  Lake  Ontario 
under  Chauncey  attempted  to  blockade  the  British  squadron  under 
Yeo  at  Kingston,  Wilkinson  moved  his  vanguard  and  artillery  to  French 
Creek,  about  twenty  miles  down  the  St.  Lawrence  on  the  south  shore, 
where  is  now  the  town  of  Clayton.  In  spite  of  Chauricey's  blockade, 
two  sloops,  two  schooners  and  four  gunboats  got  out  of  Kingston  and 
attacked  them  at  French  Creek,  doing  much  damage  on  the  afternoon 
of  the  1st  and  forenoon  of  the  2nd,  when  Chauncey 's  fleet  arrived  in 
force  and  the  British  boats  drew  off,  eluded  him  and  got  safely  away 
through  the  islands. 

On  5th  November  Wilkinson  started  down  the  river  with  his 
Invincible  Armada  of  the  St.  Lawrence.  He  had  given  up  all  idea  of 
attacking  Kingston,  owing  to  his  delay  in  starting,  it  is  said,  but  per- 
haps also  because  of  Chauncey's  failure  to  keep  the  British  boats  bottled 
up  in  Kingston.  Wilkinson  had  a  force  of  10,000,  as  shown  by  his  own 
reports.  He  is  said  to  have  had  eight  Generals  in  his  army.  At  any 
rate  he  had  four  Brigades,  commanded  by  Generals  Boyd,  Brown,  Cov- 
ington  and  Swartout.  He  had  upwards  of  three  hundred  boats  and 
scows,  as  well  as  twelve  heavy  gunboats.  He  had  two  twenty-four- 
pounders  mounted  on  scows,  so  that  they  could  be  fired  in  any  direction, 
and  he  had  all  the  St.  Lawrence  river  pilots  of  the  United  States.  It 
must  have  been  a  grand  sight  to  one  on  the  south  shore,  to  see  this 
enormous  flotilla  glide  down  our  beautiful  river,  through  the  Thousand 
Islands,  but  it  was  not  all  peaceful  gliding.  Vigorous  pursuit  was  at 
once  instituted  from  Kingston.  A  force  of  600  in  eight  gunboats  with 
three  field  pieces  eluded  Chauncey's  fleet  and  followed  fast,  under 
Captain  Mulcaster,  of  the  Navy.  These  boats  were  heavier  and  slower 


MILITAKY    MOVEMENTS    IN    EASTERN    ONTARIO,    WAR    OF    1812.        69 

than  Wilkinson's  batteaux  and  Durham  boats.  One  of  the  British  gun- 
boats, the  Nelson,  required  eighty  men  to  row  her,  forty  on  each  side. 
She  had  mounted  a  thirty-two-pounder  and  a  twenty-four-pounder. 
Whenever  it  could  prove  effective,  artillery  and  musketry  were  dis- 
charged at  the  Armada.  Wilkinson,  late  that  first  night,  reached  a 
point  on  the  American  shore  seven  miles  above  Ogdensburg.  There  he 
remained  throughout  the  6th,  and  issued  an  address  to  the  inhabitants  of 
Canada  offering  protection  to  those  who  remained  quiet  at  home,  whilst 
those  taken  in  arms  would  be  treated  as  enemies. 

Because  of  the  batteries  at  Prescott  the  troops  were  landed  with  the 
ammunition,  and  on  the  night  of  the  6th  the  boats  with  muffled  oars 
dropped  down  along  the  American  shore,  and  on  the  following  morning 
were  rejoined  below  Ogdensburg  by  the  army,  which  had  marched  by 
Ogdensburg  overland.  That  day  a  force  of  about  1,200  men  was 
landed  on  the  Canadian  side  to  march  down  parallel  with  the  boats  and 
clear  the  way,  for  the  river  is  narrower  and  much  damage  could  be 
done  from  the  shore.  On  the  8th  a  further  body  of  cavalry  was  landed 
on  the  same  shore,  and  the  next  day  the  whole  expedition  reached  a 
point  near  the  head  of  the  Long  Sault  Rapids.  At  the  head  of  the 
rapids  Brown's  Brigade  of  2,500  men  were  landed,  and  the  next  day 
marched  down  towards  Cornwall,  being  delayed  by  a  small  militia 
force  under  Captain  Dennis,  who  broke  the  bridges  and  held  the  Ameri- 
cans in  check.  In  the  meantime  the  flotilla  was  waiting  at  the  head  of 
the  rapids  for  intelligence  that  Brown  had  cleared  the  bank,  and  most 
of  the  remaining  force  had  been  landed  under  General  Boyd  to  protect, 
the  rear  from  the  British  force  in  their  wake,  which  numbered  about 
600  when  it  left  Kingston.  It  was  made  up  of  the  89th,  under  strength, 
and  a  portion  of  the  49th,  and  was  under  command  of  Colonel  Morrison, 
of  the  89th.  With  him  was  Colonel  Harvey,  D.A.G.,  the  hero  of  Stoney 
Creek.  At  Prescott  they  picked  up  two  more  companies  of  the  49th, 
some  Canadian  Fencibles  and  some  militia,  a  small  party  of  Indians  and 
another  six-pounder  gun — numbering,  altogether,  something  over  800. 
On  the  morning  of  the  llth,  while  Wilkinson,  having  heard  from  Brown, 
was  giving  orders  for  the  American  flotilla  to  run  the  rapids,  the  British 
gunboats  opened  fire,  and  at  the  same  time  Boyd  reported  that  Morrison 
was  pressing  him  on  land.  Wilkinson  accordingly  instructed  him  to 
turn  about  and  beat  them  off,  and  in  the  middle  of  the  day  the  battle  of 
Chrysler's  Farm  took  place.  Boyd  had  about  2,500  men,  including 
cavalry,  and  later  in  the  fight  was  further  reinforced.  His  cavalry 
was  posted  on  the  road  on  his  left. 


TO  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

Morrison,  probably  under  Harvey's  advice,  had  chosen  his  ground 
well.  He  rested  his  right  on  the  river,  his  left  on  a  pine  wood,  both 
flanks  being  thus  protected  by  nature.  The  intervening  distance  of 
open  ground  was  about  seven  hundred  yards.  Next  the  river  were  three 
companies  of  the  89th,  with  one  gun ;  away  in  front,  athwart  the  road, 
were  the  flank  companies  of  the  49th,  with  some  Canadians  and  a  gun, 
under  Colonel  Pearson;  on  the  left  and  in  echelon  thrown  back  arid 
reaching  to  the  wood,  was  the  remainder  of  the  regiment,  with  the  third 
gun.  In  the  wood  were  the  Canadian  Voltigeurs  and  Indians,  whose 
duty  it  was  to  skirmish  in  advance  and  draw  the  Americans  on  to  the 
main  British  position. 

The  fight  began  by  the  skirmishers  being  driven  in  on  the  British 
left,  which  was  followed  by  an  attack  in  force  upon  that  side  of  the 
position  about  2.30  p.m.  The  Americans  came  within  range  before 
they  deployed,  and  during  deployment  regular  volleys  by  platoons  were 
poured  into  them  and  beat  them  off  in  disorder.  General  Covington 
then  came  on  the  field  with  his  brigade,  and  an  attempt  was  made  to 
outflank  and  crush  our  right  nearest  the  river.  During  this  attempt 
General  Covington  was  killed.  The  British  gunboats  immediately 
afterwards  succeeded  in  firing  some  shrapnel  into  the  ranks  of  the 
enemy.  The  advanced  party  of  the  49th  made  a  counter  charge  for 
one  of  the  enemy's  guns,  but  was  pulled  up  by  a  threatened  American 
cavalry  charge.  The  89th  nearest  the  river  then  rushed  forward  in 
support,  and  together  they  beat  off  the  dragoons  and  took  the  gun.  This 
decided  the  battle.  The  Americans  after  two  hours'  fighting  retreated, 
and  their  infantry  was  taken  on  board  the  boats  and  down  the  river, 
while  the  cavalry  and  artillery  followed  on  land. 

The  Canadian  casualties  were  3  officers  and  21  men  killed,  8  officers 
and  137  men  wounded,  and  12  missing,  in  all  181  out  of  800.  Ameri- 
can official  reports  put  their  casualties  at  102  killed  and  253  wounded, 
which  included  General  Covington  amongst  those  killed;  180  prisoners 
were  taken  and  one  gun  captured.  Colonel  Harvey,  D.A.G.,  in  a  letter 
dated  Chrysler's,  12th  November,  says  there  were  at  least  4,000  Ameri- 
cans engaged,  and  he  ascribes  our  success  to  the  steady  countenance  of 
our  men  and  to  superiority  of  fire,  our  regiments  firing  regularly  in 
volleys  by  platoons  and  wings,  while  the  Americans'  fire  was  entirely 
irregular.  He  says  the  enemy  left  180  dead  on  the  field. 

The  next  day  Wilkinson  learned  of  Hampton's  defeat  and  retreat 
to  Lake  Champlain,  and  he  decided  to  give  up  all  idea  of  attacking 
Montreal.  Accordingly  he  took  his  forces  across  the  river  and  went 
into  winter  quarters  at  French  Mills  and  Malone.  In  February  the 


MILITARY    MOVEMENTS    IN    EASTERN    ONTARIO,    WAR    OF    1812.        71 

army  was  broken  up.  It  had  been  always  harassed  by  the  Canadians. 
Thus  failed  the  Invincible  Armada  of  the  St.  Lawrence. 

Before  the  end  of  the  year,  under  General  Gordon  Drummond,  who 
had  taken  command  in  Upper  Canada,  the  Americans  were  driven  out 
of  the  Niagara  Peninsula,  and  Canada  was  free  of  them. 

The  next  year  Britain  was  able  to  spare  more  troops,  and  soon  the 
seat  of  war  was  removed  to  the  United  States ;  and  on  24th  December, 
1814,  the  Treaty  of  Ghent  was  signed. 


VI. 

DEFENCE  OF  ESSEX  DURING  THE  WAK  OF  1812.* 
BY  FRANCIS  CLEARY,  WINDSOR,  ONT. 

The  Essex  Historical  Society  determined  last  year  to  place  a  tablet 
on  the  River  Canard  Bridge  to  record  the  engagements  which  took  place 
there  between  the  British  and  American  troops  during  the  above  war. 
This  tablet  has  recently  been  completed  and  placed  in  position.  It  is  of 
bronze,  with  raised  letters,  and  is  19  by  241/2  inches  in  size,  and  bears 
the  following  inscription  :— 

This  marks  the  place 
of  several  engagements 

between 
British  and  United  States 

troops  in  defence  of 

the  River  Canard  Bridge, 

where  First  Blood  was 

shed  during  the  War  of 

1812-14. 
July  24th,  1812. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Essex  Historical  Society  held  at  the  Public 
Library  here  on  May  3rd,  1911,  a  paper  was  read  by  one  of  the  mem- 
bers, Mr.  Gavin,  containing  a  short  account  of  the  events  which  took 
place  in  and  around  this  county  during  the  war,  part  of  which  may  be 
repeated  here. 

In  the  "  Journal  of  an  American  Prisoner  at  Fort  Maiden  and  Quebec 
in  the  War  of  1812,"  edited  by  G.  M.  Fairchild,  Jr.,  and  published  at 
Quebec  in  1909,  after  stating  how  the  Journal  came  into  his  possession, 
in  the  preface  or  historical  note  he  says :  "  Anticipating  the  formal  de- 
claration of  war,  President  Miadison  during  the  winter  of  1811-1812  com- 
missioned Gov.  Wm.  Hull,  of  the  Territory  of  Michigan,  as  a  Brigadier 
General  to  command  the  Ohio  and  Michigan  troops  at  Detroit,  with  the 
understanding  that  immediately  upon  the  announcement  of  war  he  was 

*  Presented  at  the  Annnal  Meeting  of  the  Ontario  Historical  Society  at  Napanee,  Ont.,  1912. 

72 


DEFENCE  OF  ESSEX  DURING  WAR  OF   1812.  73 

to  invade  all  that  part  of  Canada  contiguous  to  Detroit.  On  June  24th, 
1812,  General  Hull,  with  several  thousand  troops,  had  arrived  at  Fort 
Findlay.  Here  he  received  despatches  from  Washington  to  hasten  his 
forces  to  Detroit.  When  the  troops  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  the  Maumee 
River,  Hull  determined  to  relieve  his  tired  men  of  as  much  baggage  as 
possible  by  dispatching  it  by  water.  Accordingly  a  considerable  por- 
tion of  the  stores,  Hull's  and  his  staff's  personal  baggage,  and  the  trunk 
containing  Hull's  instructions  and  the  muster  rolls  of  the  army,  together 
with  other  valuable  papers,  and  Lieut.  Goodwin  and  Lieut.  Dent,  with 
thirty  soldiers,  were  transferred  to  the  Cuyahoga  packet  and  an 
auxiliary  schooner. 

"  On  the  morning  of  the  2nd  July  the  Cuyahoga  and  the  schooner 
entered  the  Detroit  River,  and  while  sailing  past  Fort  Maiden  (Am- 
herstburg),  the  British  armed  vessel  Hunter  went  alongside  the  Cuya- 
hoga,  and  vessel  and  cargo  became  a  prize,  while  the  crew,  troops  and 
passengers,  forty-five  in  all,  were  declared  prisoners  of  war.  The 
schooner  was  also  captured.  Col.  St.  George,  the  commander  at  Fort 
Maiden,  had  received  the  news  of  the  declaration  of  war  on  the  30th  of 
June,  while  General  Hull  received  it  only  on  the  2nd  July,  when  he 
immediately  sent  an  officer  to  the  mouth  of  the  River  Raisin  in  Michigan 
to  intercept  the  two  vessels,  but  he  arrived  too  late.  In  the  capture  of 
these  two  vessels,  valuable  stores  and  still  more  valuable  information 
fell  into  the  hands  of  the  British." 

On  July  12th  General  Hull  crossed  with  his  army  of  2,500  from 
Detroit  and  took  possession  of  the  Town  of  Sandwich,  the  few  British 
troops  stationed  there  retiring  to  Maiden.  It  was  at  this  time  that 
General  Hull  pitched  his  tents  on  the  Indian  Reserve  at  Sandwich  for 
his  2,500  soldiers,  and  remained  there  until  shortly  before  the  arrival 
of  General  Brock  at  Amherstburg,  when  he  returned  to  the  Fort  at 
Detroit. 

The  Journal  in  question  begins  July  1st,  1812,  and  some  of  the 
events  therein  recorded,  from  such  observations  as  were  possible  to  a 
prisoner  and  from  stray  information,  are  worth  mentioning  in  connec- 
tion with  what  took  place  on  this  border  at  the  time.  The  journey  from 
Maiden  to  Quebec  is  recounted  almost  day  by  day,  until  the  prisoner 
with  others  was  sent  to  Boston  for  exchange.  Here  are  a  few  extracts 
(taking  some  liberties  with  the  spelling  and  grammar) . 

"  July  1st,  1812.  After  a  long  and  tedious  march,  I,  with  the  sick, 
went  on  board  the  Cuyahoga  packet  at  Maumee.  Doctor  Edwards, 
Surgeon  General  of  the  North- Western  Army,  gave  me  charge  of  the 
hospital  stores  and  sick  to  go  by  water  to  Detroit.  We  sailed  about 


74  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

4  p.m.  At  sunset  we  anchored  for  the  night,  and  about  4  o'clock  in  the 
morning  we  weighed  anchor  and  with  a  fair  wind  entered  Lake  Erie, 
thinking  we  should  be  at  Detroit  by  3  o'clock  in  the  afternoon.  To  our 
surprise,  as  we  were  about  to  enter  Detroit  Eiver,  we  saw  a  boat  that 
hailed  us  and  ordered  our  captain  to  lower  sail.  I  thought  it  im- 
proper to  make  any  resistance,  as  I  had  not  been  informed  that  war  had 
been  declared.  Lieut.  Goodwin,  two  other  officers,  three  ladies  and  two 
soldiers'  wives,  making  in  all  forty-five  in  number  on  board,  it  would 
have  been  imprudent  in  the  highest  degree  to  have  attempted  to  resist  a 
boat  of  eight  well  armed  men  and  a  captain,  and  another  of  five  men  who 
demanded  us  as  prisoners  of  war  when  we  were  nearly  under  the  cover  of 
the  guns  of  Fort  Maiden.  We  gave  ourselves  up,  and  were  taken  into 
Maiden  on  July  4th.  We  were  surrounded  with  savages  singing  and 
dancing  their  war  dances  through  the  town.  O  heavens !  what  a  glory 
sun  for  independence !  Can  any  person  describe  the  feelings  of  a  free 
born  subject,  to  see  the  savages  dancing  their  war  dance  and  hooting 
about  the  town,  and  to  be  confined  when  we  knew  they  were  preparing 
to  murder  our  fellow  creatures. 

"  July  5th.  Some  gentlemen  from  our  side  came  from  Detroit  with 
a  flag  of  truce  and  brought  news  that  our  army  had  arrived  there  safe, 
and  that  the  men  were  in  tolerable  health  and  spirits." 

This  no  doubt  refers  to  the  fact  that  Col.  Cass  was  sent  to  Maiden 
with  a  flag  of  truce  to  demand  the  baggage  and  prisoners  taken  from  the 
schooner.  The  demand  was  unheeded,  and  he  returned  to  camp  with 
Captain  Burbanks  of  the  British  army. 

"  July  12th,  Sunday.  The  American  troops  crossed  the  river  into 
Sandwich  and  divested  the  people  of  their  arms  and  sent  them  to  their 
farms. 

"July  16th.  Captain  Brown  came  to  town  with  a  flag  of  truce,  on 
what  express  news  we  knew  not,  but  could  judge  by  the  movements. 
Two  top-sail  vessels  were  sent  out  of  the  river  and  the  people  were  mov- 
ing out  of  the  town  at  night. 

"  July  17th.  The  Indians  were  flocking  into  town  all  morning.  It 
appeared  by  10  o'clock  that  almost  every  person  had  left  the  town."  Mr. 
Fairchild's  footnote  to  this  is  to  the  effect  that  on  the  16th  Col.  Cass  of 
the  American  army,  with  a  force  of  about  280  men,  pushed  forward  to 
the  Ta-ron-tee,  or  Kiviere  Aux  Canards,  about  four  miles  above  Maiden, 
and  engaged  the  British  outposts  guarding  the  bridge  across  the  river. 
The  British  and  Indians  retreated.  Hull  retired  the  force  to  Sand- 
wich, as  he  said  the  position  was  untenable  with  so  small  a  force. 


DEFENCE  OF  ESSEX  DURING  WAR  OF   1812.  75 

"July  19th,  Sunday.  There  was  considerable  movement  to-day; 
the  Indians  again  passed  armed,  and  about  2  p.m.  we  heard  firing  to- 
wards Sandwich." 

The  footnotes  to  this  are  as  follows:  "  On  the  18th  July  Gen.  Hull 
issued  an  order  for  a  general  movement  on  Fort  Maiden.  Col.  He- 
Arthur,  with  a  detachment  of  his  regiment,  joined  Captain  Snelling  on 
the  19th  at  Petite  Cote,  about  a  mile  from  Aux  Canards  Bridge.  A 
general  skirmish  ensued  with  the  Indians  under  command  of  Tecumseh, 
and  McArthur  was  compelled  to  fall  back.  He  sent  for  reinforcements, 
and  Col.  Cass  hastened  to  his  aid  with  a  six-pounder,  but  after  another 
short  engagement  with  the  Indians  and  the  British  supports  that  had 
been  hastened  to  their  assistance,  the  American  forces  returned  to  Sand- 
wich. 

"  Another  engagement  took  place  July  24th,  When  Major  Denny 
and  a  considerable  force  of  Americans  were  engaged  with  some  Indians, 
and  retreated  in  considerable  confusion  pursued  by  the  Indians.  Denny 
lost  six  killed  and  two  wounded.  This  was  the  first  blood  shed  in  the 
war. 

"  August  2nd,  Sunday.  Nothing  extra.  The  Indians  commence  to 
cross  to  Brownstown  (now  Trenton,  Mich.),  with  British  and  officers." 
This  is  followed  with  short  notes  of  what  took  place  up  to  the  following 
Sunday,  viz. :  "  On  3rd  soldiers  and  Indians  crossed  to  Brownstown, 
twelve  boats  loaded ;  I  should  ju<Jge  about  400  in  numbers.  On  4th  the 
troops  crossed  the  river  as  they  did  yesterday,  and  returned  about  8 
o'clock  in  the  evening.  5th.  The  Indians  crossed  the  river  about  11 
o'clock,  and  people  appeared  very  much  alarmed.  A  party  of  them  re- 
turned about  sunset,  but  the  boats  had  few  in  them."  Col.  Proctor,  who 
was  then  in  command  at  Amherstburg,  detached  the  Indians  under 
Tecumseh  across  the  river  to  intercept  a  convoy  that  Major  Van  Home 
and  a  force  of  Americans  had  been  sent  to  safely  conduct  within  the 
American  lines,  and  on  the  5th  August  Tecumseh  badly  defeated  Van 
Home's  force  of  Americans  near  Brownstown.  This  victory,  however, 
was  reversed  on  Sunday,  9th,  at  the  battle  of  Magagua,  where  Col. 
Miller,  in  command  of  the  Americans,  defeated  the  British  and  Indians, 
and  drove  them  to  their  boats,  when  they  returned  to  Maiden. 

The  Journal  entries  under  dates  of  August  14th,  15th  and  16th  are 
shortly  as  follows :  "  Friday,  14th.  There  were  five  boats  came  up 
loaded  with  soldiers  and  five  more  this  morning  with  from  15  to  20  men 
in  each,  making  in  all  about  170  men;  another  boat  arrived  about  11 
o'clock  with  20  men ;  the  new  soldiers  all  appeared  to  leave  town  about 
sunset. 


76  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

"  Saturday,  15th.  Foggy;  the  drums  beat  to  arms  about  sunrise  and 
the  troops  were  all  in  motion.  The  citizens  all  entered  boats  for  Detroit, 
as  I  am  told.  The  Indians  went  by  boats,  by  land  300.  About  sunset 
the  cannons  began  to  roar  at  Sandwich. 

"  Sunday,  16th.  Pleasant  weather  but  unpleasant  news.  We  heard 
about  noon  that  Hull  had  given  up  Detroit  and  the  whole  territory  of 
Michigan.  The  Indians  began  to  return  about  sunset,  well  mounted 
and  some  with  horses." 

This  news  was  soon  confirmed.  As  a  matter  of  history  it  is  known 
that  Gen.  Brock  had  left  Niagara  shortly  before  this  date  and  joined 
Col.  Proctor  at  Fort  Maiden  on  the  night  of  the  13th  August  with  300 
militia  and  a  few  regulars,  and  had  marched  the  following  day  with  the 
forces  under  his  command  and  taken  possession  of  Sandwich,  which  had 
been  abandoned  by  the  Americans.  About  4  o'clock  on  the  afternoon 
of  the  15th  a  general  cannonading  began  between  the  British  at  Sand- 
wich and  the  Americans  at  Detroit.  Considerable  damage  was  done  by 
the  British  artillery,  and  several  American  officers  were  killed.  Two 
guns  on  the  British  side  were  silenced  by  the  American  artillery. 
During  the  night  the  British  crossed  to  the  Detroit  side  of  the  river  and 
prepared  for  an  assault  on  the  town.  The  guns  at  Sandwich  opened  a 
heavy  cannonading  and  their  range  was  so  accurate  that  many  were 
slain.  The  capitulation  of  Gen.  Hull  early  followed;  by  the  terms  of 
surrender  the  American  militia  were  paroled  and  allowed  to  return 
to  their  homes,  but  the  regulars  were  declared  to  be  prisoners  of  war  and 
were  sent  on  board  the  prison  ships. 

The  American  prisoner  continues  his  narrative,  giving  a  detailed 
account  of  the  journey  of  the  prisoners  of  war  by  sea  and  by  land  until 
they  reached  Quebec  on  the  evening  of  the  llth  September. 

The  next  issue  of  the  Quebec  Gazette  newspaper  contains  the  follow- 
ing item :  "  The  officers  and  regular  troops  of  the  American  army  taken 
at  Detroit  and  which  have  no  permission  to  return  to  their  parole,  ar- 
rived at  Anse  des  Meres  Friday  afternoon,  escorted  by  a  detachment  of 
the  Kegiment  of  Three  Eivers.  The  prisoners,  with  the  exception  of  the 
officers,  were  immediately  embarked  in  boats  for  the  transports.  The 
officers  were  lodged  in  the  city  for  the  night,  and  the  following  day  were 
conducted  to  Charlesbourg,  where  they  will  be  domiciled  on  parole/' 
And  the  Quebec  Mercury  of  the  28th  October,  1812,  contains  the  follow- 
ing: "  The  prisoners  taken  at  Detroit  and  brought  down  to  Quebec  are 
on  the  point  of  embarking  for  Boston  for  the  purpose  of  being  exchanged. 
Five  cannon  are  now  lying  at  the  Chateau  Court  taken  at  Detroit." 


DEFENCE  OF  ESSEX  DURING  WAR  OF   1812.  77 

In  the  diary  of  Wm.  McCaw,  a  militiaman  from  Niagara,  and  who 
was  with  Gen.  Brock  at  the  taking  of  Detroit,  Aug.  16,  1812,  many  of 
the  items  in  the  American  Prisoner's  Journal  are  corroborated. 

In  going  through  the  Fort  at  Detroit  after  the  capitulation  he  says 
he  saw  several  of  the  soldiers  who  had  been  killed  and  a  number  of  the 
wounded. 

It  is  worthy  of  mention  here  that  Captain  Frederick  Rolette  played 
an  important  part  in  the  capture  of  the  Cuyahoga  packet  already  men- 
tioned, and  also  in  many  of  the  important  events  of  this  war  which  took 
place  subsequently.  Frederick  Rolette  was  educated  at  the  Quebec 
Seminary,  and  when  a  mere  lad  entered  the  Royal  Navy.  He  saw  much 
active  service,  and  received  no  less  than  five  wounds  at  the  battles  of 
Aboukir  and  Trafalgar.  He  returned  to  Canada  in  1807,  and  shortly 
afterwards  was  appointed  to  the  Provincial  Marine.  By  commission 
of  October  4th,  1808,  he  was  nominated  second  lieutenant  in  His 
Majesty's  Provincial  Marine.  In  1812  he  received  promotion  to  the  rank 
of  first  lieutenant  in  H.  M.  Provincial  Marine,  and  was  given  command 
of  the  brig  General  Hunter,  commissioned  to  cruise  on  Lake  Erie. 
During  the  early  days  of  Hull's  invasion  of  Upper  Canada  in  1812,  the 
General  Hunter  was  in  Amherstburg  harbor,  when  Rolette  espied  a 
United  States  vessel  approach,  and  put  out  towards  her  in  a  boat  with 
eight  armed  men.  Boarding  the  stranger,  he  was  surprised,  but  not 
alarmed,  apparently,  to  find  himself  on  the  deck  of  a  Government  vessel, 
the  Cuyahoga  packet,  with  four  officers  and  forty  men  of  the  United 
States  army  on  board,  besides  her  own  crew. 

His  pluck  and  presence  of  mind  did  not  desert  him.  Placing  one  of 
his  sailors  as  a  sentry  over  the  arm-chest  and  others  at  the  companion- 
way,  he  issued  orders  in  a  loud  voice  to  shoot  down  the  first  man  who 
showed  any  disposition  to  resist.  For  a  time  his  boldness  had  the  de- 
sired effect,  but  before  long  some  of  the  United  States  officers,  chagrined 
at  their  position,  began  to  make  menacing  demonstration.  At  this  time 
the  prize  was  approaching  Fort  Maiden.  Rolette,  in  a  menacing  voice, 
ordered  the  Cuyahoga  to  be  run  in  under  the  guns  of  the  battery.  This 
quelled  all  idea  of  an  uprising  on  the  part  of  the  Americans,  and  rein- 
forcements conveniently  arriving,  the  prize,  which  proved  to  be  of  great 
value,  was  secured. 

Rolette  served  ashore  with  distinction  under  Brock  at  the  capture  of 
Detroit,  and  in  the  operations  with  Proctor  on  the  River  Raisin,  being 
seriously  wounded  while  commanding  a  naval  gun  detachment  at 
Frenchtown.  During  the  war  he  served  successively  on  the  schooner 
Chippewa,  the  sloop  Little  Belt,  and  the  nineteen-gun  ship,  De~ 


78  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

troit.  In  the  action  on  Lake  Erie  at  Put-in  Bay,  Sept.  10th,  1813,  he 
assumed  command,  though  wounded,  of  the  Lady  Prevost,  after  her 
captain  was  killed,  and  was  again  very  dangerously  wounded  when  the 
magazines  blew  up.  He  was  taken  prisoner  of  war  and  held  in  captivity 
for  several  months.  Upon  his  return  to  Canada  he  was  presented  with 
a  sword  of  honor  by  his  classmates  of  the  Quebec  Seminary. 

It  is  fitting  that  something  should  be  said  here  of  the  services  ren- 
dered to  the  British  by  Tecumseh,  the  brave  Shawnee  chief,  in  repelling 
the  attacks  made  by  the  Americans  on  those  defending  the  Essex  fron- 
tier during  this  war.  He  was  with  the  British  with  his  Indian  allies  in 
many  of  the  engagements,  including  the  capture  of  Detroit.  It  was 
much  against  his  will  that  he  joined  in  the  retreat  with  Proctor  from 
Detroit  in  October,  1813.  The  particulars  of  the  battle  at  Moravian- 
town,  where  he  gave  up  his  life,  are  too  well  known  to  be  repeated  here. 

Surely  something  should  be  done  to  erect  a  monument  or  other  suit- 
able memorial  in  testimony  of  his  services.  The  question  of  where  this 
should  be  erected  has  been  much  discussed.  Various  suggestions  have 
been  made.  We  would  respectfully  submit  that  it  should  be  at  or  near 
Thamesville,  where  he  gave  up  his  life  in  the  defence  of  his  country,  or 
at  the  Town  of  Amherstburg,  where  he  was  an  active  participator  in  the 
many  stirring  events  in  and  around  its  vicinity. 


VII. 

THE  ECONOMIC  EFFECT  OF  THE  WAR  OF  1812  ON 
UPPER  CANADA.* 

BY  ADAM  SHORTT,  C.M.G.,  M.A.,  F'.R.S.C.,  OTTAWA,  ONT. 

In  considering  the  economic  conditions  of  any  country,  and  especi- 
ally of  a  new  country,  many  considerations  have  to  be  taken  into  account 
besides  a  mere  survey  of  prices,  rates  of  profit,  or  volume  of  trade.  Only 
when  we  know  the  social  and  economic  atmosphere  of  the  various  dis- 
tricts, the  conditions  of  transportation,  labor,  local  production,  etc.,  can 
we  come  to  any  rational  conclusions.  Thus,  in  dealing  with  the  econ- 
omic condition  of  Upper  Canada  before,  during,  and  after  the  War  of 
1812,  we  require  to  know  not  only  the  isolated  facts  as  to  prices  and 
values,  but  the  general  setting  of  the  country,  geographical,  social  and 
commercial. 

In  its  early  days  there  were  two  or  three  important  general  con- 
ditions which  vitally  affected  the  economic  development  of  the  Province 
of  Upper  Canada.  In  the  first  place,  the  frontier  settlements  of  Ontario 
were  planted  much  earlier  than  the  corresponding  regions  of  the  adjoin- 
ing states  to  the  south  of  the  lakes.  The  first  settlers,  being  for  the  most 
part  United  Empire  Loyalists,  enjoyed  the  benefit  of  having  been  especi- 
ally outfitted  by  the  British  Government  and  partially  supported  at  its 
expense  for  several  years.  For  various  reasons,  partly  accidental  and 
partly  of  an  international  nature,  the  Government  established  strong 
garrisons  along  the  Canadian  frontier,  contributed  largely  to  the  sup- 
jport  of  the  civil  government,  and  undertook  certain  public  works.  The 
I  ^requirements  of  these  establishments  created  very  profitable  local  mar- 
kets for  the  limited  produce  of  the  early  settlers,  much  of  which  could 
not  support  the  expense  of  shipment  from  the  country.  They  furnished 
also  a  strong  market  for  labor,  so  that  during  the  first  ten  years  of 
Upper  Canada's  existence  as  a  separate  province,  the  economic  condi- 
tion of  the  country  was,  on  the  whole,  very  satisfactory,  especially  along 
the  frontier  settlements,  where  the  people  had  access  to  both  local  and 
central  markets.  The  most  important  trade  of  the  province  in  both 
exports  and  imports  was  conducted  for  a  considerable  time  by  Messrs. 

*  Presented  at  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Ontario  Historical  Society  at  Napanee,  Ont.,  1912. 

79 


80  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

Cartwright  and  Hamilton,  who  were  originally  partners  and  always 
close  business  associates.  In  various  capacities,  the  Honorable  Kichard 
Cartwright  was  associated  with  practically  all  the  business  of  Upper 
Canada.  These  varied  interests  are  fully  represented  in  his  commercial 
and  general  letter-books,  which  constitute  the  most  extensive  and  ac- 
curate sources  of  information  as  to  the  more  important  affairs  of  Upper 
Canada,  between  the  first  settlement  of  the  province  in  1785  and  the 
close  of  the  War  of  1812.  This  information  is  supplemented  and  con- 
firmed by  many  special  papers  in  the  Canadian  Archives,  and  by  more 
fragmentary  letters  and  records  drawn  from  various  private  sources. 

From  these  various  sources  we  find  that  the  early  settlers  of  Upper 
Canada  were  by  no  means  dependent  upon  their  own  resources  for  the 
establishment  and  development  of  the  province.  In  other  words,  they 
were  not  compelled  to  pay  for  what  they  imported  by  furnishing  exports 
to  be  disposed  of  in  distant  markets.  Otherwise,  their  struggle  for  exist- 
ence would  have  been  much  harder  than  it  was,  for  few  of  them  had 
much  capital  and  not  many  of  them  had  much  experience  in  making 
their  way  in  the  wilderness.  The  most  successful  element  from  the 
point  of  view  of  individual  resources,  with  a  knowledge  of  agricultural 
conditions  in  a  new  country,  were  the  subsequent  American  immigrants, 
§uch  as  the  Quakers  and  others,  who  settled  in  Prince  Edward  County, 
and  in  other  districts  along  the  Bay  of  Quinte,  the  Niagara  region,  and 
at  various  points  along  the  north  shores  of  Lakes  Ontario  and  Erie. 

When  the  American  settlers  began  to  develop  along  the  south  shore 
of  the  lakes,  they  naturally  depended  upon  the  Canadians  for  the  larger 
mat  of  their  food  supplies,  as  well  as  for  much  of  their  imported  Euro- 
|/pean  goods.  These  settlements  proved  to  be  very  valuable  and  high-priced 
markets  for  Canadian  produce.  Thus  it  was,  that,  except  for  an  odd 
year  now  and  again,  the  greater  part  of  the  Upper  Canadian  agricul- 
tural produce  found  local  markets.  In  such  cases  the  price  of  agricul- 
tural produce  in  western  Canada,  instead  of  being  determined  by  the 
price  in  Britain  less  the  cost  of  transportation,  insurance,  commission 
and  duty,  expressed  a  local  demand  only,  the  limit  of  which  was  the 
price  in  Britain  plus  these  items;  because  in  those  days,  and  occasion- 
ally in  the  future,  Canada  found  it  necessary  to  import  food  supplies 
from  Europe. 

It  is  a  common  mistake  to  suppose  that  since  the  forests  have  been 
largely  cleared  from  the  basin  of  the  Great  Lakes,  the  rainfall  has  been 
lessened  and  drouth  is  more  common.  The  fact  is  that  drouth  was  at 
least  as  common  and  the  rise  and  fall  of  the  lakes  was  as  much  com- 
mented upon  over  a  hundred  years  ago  as  to-day.  The  period  from  1794 


ECONOMIC  EFFECT  OF  WAR  OF  1812  ON  UPPER  CANADA.      81 

to  1797  was  an  exceptionally  dry  one,  and  the  people,  with  little  past 
experience,  were  alarmed  at  the  prospect  of  the  permanent  lowering  of 
the  Great  Lakes.  Crops  suffered  severely  from  drouth,  as  also  from 
the  ravages  of  the  Hessian  fly.  In  consequence,  the  harvests  were  light 
and  prices  high.  At  this  time  flour  sold  in  Upper  Canada  at  $4.00  to 
$4.50  per  cwt.,  and  on  the  American  side  of  the  lakes  at  even  higher 
prices.  Peas  brought  $1.00  per  bushel,  and  very  inferior  grades  of  salt 
pork  cost  $26.00  per  barrel.  At  the  same  time,  the  Government  was 
importing  food  supplies  from  Europe  to  feed  the  troops  in  Lower 
Canada.  When  it  is  remembered  that  the  cost  of  transporting  a  barrel 
of  flour  from  Upper  Canada  to  Montreal,  up  to  1802,  had  not  been 
reduced  below  80  cents,  even  when  taken  on  rafts  and  scows,  one  can 
understand  what  difference  it  would  make  when  the  cost  of  transport 
was  deducted  from  the  price  of  provisions  in  Upper  Canada.  Cart- 
wright  summed  up  the  situation  very  well  when  he  said,  "  As  long  as 
the  British  Government  shall  think  proper  to  hire  people  to  come  over 
to  eat  our  flour  we  shall  go  on  very  well,  and  continue  to  make 
a  figure,  but  when  once  we  come  to  export  our  produce,  the 
disadvantages  of  our  remote  inland  situation  will  operate  in  their 
full  force,  and  the  very  large  portion  of  the  price  of  our  produce 
that  must  be  absorbed  by  the  expense  of  transporting  it  to  the 
place  of  export,  and  the  enhanced  value  which  the  same  cost  must  add 
to  every  article  of  European,  manufacture,  will  give  an  effective  check 
to  the  improvement  of  the  country  beyond  a  certain  extent." 

A  few  good  harvests  in  the  early  part  of  the  nineteenth  century,  and 
the  rapidity  with  which  the  Americans  brought  their  side  of  the  lakes 
,  under  cultivation,  greatly  changed  the  situation  in  Upper  Canada.  The 
^price  of  whea^  fell  in  the  Upper  Province  because  it  had  now  to  bear 
the  cost  of  transportation  to  the  Lower  Province,  and  sometimes  to  Eng- 
land. It  was  estimated  that  between  1800  and  1810  the  normal  differ- 
ence in  the  price  of  a  barrel  of  flour  as  between  Kingston  and  Montreal, 
including  commission  and  freight,  would  range  from  $1.00  to  $1.50. 
When,  therefore,  the  price  of  grain  fell,  the  people  of  Upper  Canada 
turned  their  attention  to  the  lumber  and  timber  trade,  and  to  the  pro- 
duction of  staves  and  potash.  The  timber,  in  particular,  could  be 
cheaply  transported  down  the  St.  Lawrence. 

The  era  of  the  Orders  in  Council,  after  1808,  and  the  increasing 
trouble  with  the  United  States  before  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  coupled 
with  returning  short  harvests,  led  to  a  revival  of  prices,  between  1808 
1811.    Having  regard  to  the  price  of  wheat  alone,  one  would  infer 
that  the  province  must  have  been  increasingly  "prosperous  during  this 


82  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

period,  but  such  was  not  the  case.  Prices,  it  is  true,  in  Upper  Canada 
were  practically  the  same  as  in  Lower  Canada,  because  there  was  little 
to  export,  the  wheat  crop  having  been  particularly  poor  during  1810. 
Moreover,  as  indicated,  agriculture  had  suffered  considerably  for  the 
past  few  years  on  account  of  the  settlers  going  in  for  lumber  and  staves, 
but  now  there  was  a  severe  fall  in  the  prices  of  these  articles,  as  also  of 
potash.  The  high  price  of  staves  during  the  years  1808  and  1809  had 
induced  many  settlers  to  go  into  that  line  very  extensively,  but  in  1810 
prices  fell  from  forty  to  sixty  per  cent. 

Owing  to  the  slowness  and  uncertainty  of  transport,  and  the  closing 
of  the  Canadian  ports  in  winter,  merchants  required  to  order  their  sup- 
plies of  goods  considerably  in  advance.  The  result  was  that  in  1810 
the  merchants  found  themselves  overstocked  with  European  goods,  which 
the  public  were  unable  to  purchase,  or  for  which  the  merchants  could 
not  secure  returns.  The  commercial  distress  first  manifested  itself  at 
Montreal,  but  spread  more  or  less  rapidly  to  the  outlying  districts  de- 
pendent upon  it,  and  especially  to  Upper  Canada.  As  Cartwright  put 
it,  "  The  large  returns  heretofore  made  in  lumber  have  occasioned  an 
immense  quantity  of  goods  to  be  brought  into  this  country,  and  sudden 
depression  in  the  price  of  that  article  would  occasion  great  deficiency 
in  remittances."  The  reaction  caused  even  the  price  of  food  to  drop. 
1  Flour,  which  had  been  $11  and  $12  per  barrel  in  April,  fell  to  $8.40  in 
/  Montreal  and  $7.50  in  the  Kingston  district.  As  a  natural  consequence 
I  of  the  depression,  specie  became  very  scarce,  while  merchant  bills  were 
a  drug  on  the  market.  For  lack  of  a  better  medium  of  exchange,  notes 
of  hand  were  in  circulation  in  local  centres.  Towards  the  latter  part  of 
1811  things  were  looking  very  blue  indeed  in  all  parts  of  Canada. 
Montreal  merchants  could  not  collect  their  debts  from  their  western  cor- 
respondents, because  they  in  turn  could  not  collect  from  their  debtors. 
Bills  of  exchange,  accepted  by  the  merchants,  were  not  met  when  due, 
and  the  cost  of  protesting  them  was  heavy.  Early  in  1812  Cartwright 
was  offered  pork  at  $18.00  per  barrel  and  flour  at  $9.00.  In  June  it 
could  be  had  at  $8.00  delivered  in  Montreal.  Early  in  July,  however, 
it  was  learned  that  war  had  been  declared  and  prices  immediately  took 
an  upward  turn.  As  the  summer  advanced,  supplies  of  every  descrip- 
tion rapidly  rose  in  price.  In  September  flour  had  risen  to  $12.00  per 
barrel  and  in  November  to  $13.00.  In  the  spring  of  1813  shipments  of 
provisions  down  the  St.  Lawrence  had  quite  ceased,  everything  available 
Jtfeing  in  demand  for  the  supply  of  the  troops  and  others  in  the  service 
^of  the  Government.  When  the  army  bills  went  into  circulation  in 
August,  1812,  they  furnished  an  easy  and  safe  means  of  meeting  the 


ECONOMIC  EFFECT  OF  WAR  OF  1812  ON  UPPER  CANADA.      83 

yfmmediate  obligations  of  the  British  Government  without  the  danger 
of  shipping  specie  to  Canada,  while  their  being  convertible  into  bills  of 
exchange  enabled  the  merchants  to  meet  their  obligations  in  Britain 
without  expense.  Towards  the  close  of  1812,  we  find  Cartwright  be- 
ginning to  receive  quite  a  stream  of  payments  from  all  parts  of  the  pro- 
vince in  commissariat  bills  and  army  bills,  which  he,  in  turn,  was  send- 
ing down  to  Montreal  to  pay  off  his  indebtedness  there. 

From  the  beginning  of  1813  to  the  close  of  the  war,  there  was  little 
or  nothing  going  down  the  river  beyond  furs  from  the  west  and  an  ever 
increasing  stream  of  bills  of  exchange  and  army  bills.  The  whole  move- 

t  of  commerce  was  up  the  river,  and  the  rates  of  freight  were  cor- 
respondingly high.  In  1814  freight  from  Montreal  to  Kingston 
amounted  to  $12.50  per  barrel  of  miscellaneous  goods.  The  conditions 
referred  to  by  Cartwright  in  the  early  nineties  were  reproduced  in  an 
exaggerated  form.  The  British  Government  had  sent  large  contingents 
of  troops  and  marines  to  Canada,  including  Upper  Canada.  It  was  also 
employing  men  and  horses  wherever  available  from  Cornwall  to  Detroit. 
It  paid  famine  prices  for  all  kinds  of  produce  and  hired  men  to  consume 
it  in  the  province.  Owing  to  the  great  volume  of  exchanges  drawn 
against  Britain,  the  very  unusual  experience  was  realized,  from  the 
beginning  of  1814,  of  Government  exchange  on  Britain  being  at  a  dis- 
count. Thus  we  find  Cartwright,  in  July,  1814,  buying  a  bill  of  ex- 
change on  England  for  £61  2s.  2d.  sterling  for  which  he  paid  only 
£55  currency,  a  pound  currency  being  rated  at  $4.00.  Real  estate  and 
other  property  in  the  frontier  towns  had  gone  up  enormously  in  value. 

As  supplies  on  the  Canadian  side  began  to  grow  scarce  during  the 
last  two  years  of  the  war,  those  who  had  to  furnish  provisions 
for  the  troops,  particularly  in  the  lines  of  flour  and  meat,  found  it  neces- 
sary to  devise  means  of  obtaining  supplies  from  the  adjoining  districts 
of  the  United  States.  This  was  accomplished,  as  a  rule,  by  the  conniv- 
ance of  people  of  influence,  military  and  other,  on  both  sides  of  the  line. 
This  trade,  once  established,  continued  very  briskly  for  nearly  a  couple 
of  years  after  the  war ;  the  Province  of  Upper  Canada  in  particular  hav- 
ing been  practically  stripped  of  everything  saleable  in  the  food  line. 

During  the  war,  certain  permanent  changes  were  made  in  the  meth- 
ods of  conducting  business.  Money  being  very  plentiful  in  all  parts  of 
the  province,  trade  brisk,  and  the  returns  rapid,  the  old  system  of  long 
credits,  extending  to  at  least  a  year  and  over,  were  gradually  abolished, 
and  at  the  close  of  the  war  the  business  of  the  province  was  pretty  well 
established  on  a  cash  basis.  On  this  basis  the  purely  commercial  busi- 


84  ONTARIO    HISTORICAL    SOCIETY. 

ness  of  the  country  remained,  though  in  some  of  the  newer  sections  and 
in  minor  retail  trade,  longer  and  more  irregular  credits  once  more  pre- 
vailed. Again,  in  consequence  of  the  universal  employment  of  the  army 
bills  and  the  facilities  which  they  afforded  for  effective  exchange,  the 
people  had  grown  accustomed  to  the  use  of  an  efficient  and  reliable  paper 
currency.  Hence,  when  the  war  terminated  and  the  army  bills  were 
withdrawn,  the  people  were  in  a  proper  frame  of  mind  for  the  establish- 
ment of  banks.  Thus,  the  Bank  of  Montreal  appeared  in  1817,  and  in 
the  following  year  the  Quebec  Bank,  the  Bank  of  Canada  at  Montreal 
and  the  Bank  of  Upper  Canada  at  Kingston.  \ 

On  the  other  hand,  there  were  certain  unfortunate  consequences 
which,  if  they  did  not  originate  from  the  exceptional  prosperity  of  the 
war  period,  were  at  least  greatly  fostered  by  it.  Merchants,  wholesale 
and  retail,  transporters,  laborers  and  farmers  had  all  alike  grown  accus- 
tomed to  obtaining  large  profits,  good  wages,  and  high  prices,  and  all 
without  any  special  enterprise,  foresight,  or  industry  on  their  part. 
When  the  fertilizing  stream  of  British  expenditure,  all  of  it  extracted 
from  the  pockets  of  the  British  taxpayer,  had  ceased  to  flow,  the  people 
could  not  believe  that  the  prosperity  which  they  had  enjoyed  must  cease, 
and  that  they  must  henceforth  largely  depend  upon  their  own  exertions 
anji  enterprise  for  such  wealth  as  they  might  acquire.  Many  people 
wno  had  cultivated  expensive  tastes  and  who  found  it  difficult  to  severely 
/prune  their  expenditure,  fell  into  financial  difficulties  and  were  ulti- 

"  mately  ruined.  Much  wealth  was,  of  course,  left  in  the  country  when 
the  war  ceased,  and  so  long  as  it  lasted  prices  declined  but  slowly.  Upper 
Canadian  markets  were  therefore  especially  attractive  to  enterprising 
^nerican  producers.  For  fully  three  years  the  upper  province  imported 
Auite  abnormal  amounts  of  American  goods.  Lastly,  the  war  had  not 

^improved  the  social  condition  of  the  people.  The  lack  of  means  to  ^ 
gratify  their  tastes  accounted  for  the  relative  sobriety  of  a  considerable 
element  in  the  population  during  the  early  years  of  provincial  history. 
Many  of  these  persons,  however,  were  quite  unable  to  stand  prosperity, 
hence  drunkenness  and  other  forms  of  vice  flourished  throughout  the 
province  in  proportion  to  the  diffusion  of  British  wealth.  Naturally, 
the  later  state  of  these  people  was  much  worse  than  the  first,  and  the 
existence  of  a  regular  pauperized  class  dates  from  the  close  of  the  war. 
It  is  difficult  to  determine  whether  Canada  was,  on  the  whole,  bene- 
fited or  the  reverse  by  the  exceptional  period  of  prosperity  which  the 
war  had  brought  to  her  doors.  It  may  be  said,  however,  that  the  more 
thrifty  elements  of  the  population  and  those  who  had  not  lost  their  heads 


ECONOMIC  EFFECT  OF  WAE  OF  1812  ON  UPPEK  CANADA.      85 

through  sudden  wealth,  utilized  their  savings  for  the  establishment  of 
permanent  enterprises,  while  for  the  more  unbalanced  and  incapable  the 
war  period  had  proved  their  undoing.  A  great  change,  therefore,  was 
observable  in  the  personnel  of  the  leaders  in  economic  and  social  life 
after  the  war,  as  compared  with  the  period  before  it.  On  one  point, 
however,  there  is  no  doubt  whatever,  namely,  that  the  War  of  1812,  in- 
stead of  being  the  occasion  of  loss  and  suffering  to  Upper  Canada  as  a 
whole,  was  the  occasion  of  the  greatest  era  of  prosperity  which  it  had 
heretofore  enjoyed,  or  which  it  was  yet  to  experience  before  the  Crimean 
War  and  the  American  Civil  War  again  occasioned  quite  abnormal  de- 
mands for  its  produce  at  exceptionally  high  prices. 


PAPERS  AND   RECORDS 


VOL.  XI. 


TORONTO ; 

PUBLISHED  BY  THE  SOCIETY 

1913 


;.v; 


OFFICERS,     1912^13 


Honorary    President : 
THE  HONORABLE  THE  MINISTER  OF  EDUCATION  OF  ONTARI*. 

President : 
JOHN  DEARNESS,  M.A.,  London. 

1st  Vice^President : 
CLARANCE  M.  WARNER,  Napanee. 

2nd  Vice- President : 
SIR  EDMUND  WALKER,  Toronto 

Secretary  and  Acting  Treasurer  : 
ALEXANDER  ERASER,  LL.D,,  LITT    D.,  Toronto. 

Auditors : 
J.  J.  MURPHY,  Toronto.  FRANK  YEIGH,  Toronto 

Councillors  : 

A.  F.  HUNTER,  M.A.  W.  STEWART  WALLACE,  B.A, 

J.  STEWART  CARSTAIRS,  B.A.  W.  L.  GRANT,  M.A. 

ALEXANDER  FRASER,  LL.D,,  LITT.  D.,  F.S.A  ,  SCOT,  (Edin.) 


The  Ontario   Historical  Society  does  not   assume 
responsibility  for  the  statements  of  its  contributors. 


Place-Names    in    Georgian    Bay 

(Including  the  North  Channel) 
BY  JAMES  WHITE,  F.R.G.S. 


For  convenience  and  on  account  of  the  historical  connection, 
the  North  Channel  names  have  also  been  included  in  this  compila- 
tion. 

Place-names  in  the  area  covered  by  this  paper  can  be  assigned 
to  three  distinct  periods  ;  first,  those  given  by  Bayfield  when  he 
surveyed  it  in  1819-22  ;  second,  the  local  names  given  by  fishermen, 
residents  and  others  between  the  date  of  Bayfield 's  survey  and  1883  ; 
third,  the  new  survey  by  Messrs.  Boulton  and  Stewart  in.  1883-93. 

Before  discussing  the  derivations  of  the  first  period,  a  few 
notes  respecting  Bayfield  may  be  of  interest.  He  was  born  in  1795, 
entered  the  Navy  in  1806,  on  H.M.S.  Pompee  (80),  Sir  William  Syd- 
ney Smith,  and  was  in  action  with  a  French  privateer,  six  hours 
after  leaving  Portsmouth.  Later,  he  served  in  H.M.S.  Queen  (98), 
Admiral  Lord  Collingwood's  flagship,  and  in  the  Duchess  of  Bed- 
ford, Lieut.  Spilsbury.  In  1806,  he  was  appointed  to  H.M.S. 
Beagle,  Gapt.  F.  Newcombe,  and,  in  1811,  he  was  midshipman  in 
the  Wanderer  (21),  Gapt.  F.  Newcombe.  He  was  promoted  to  Lieu- 
tenant, 1815,  and  was  appointed  assistant  to  Capt.  William  Fitz- 
william  Owen,  R.N.,  in  the  survey  of  Lake  Ontario.  The  war  of 
1812-14  had  shown  the  necessity  for  a  hydrographical  survey  of  the 
Great  Lakes  and  Gapt.  Owen  had  been  appointed  for  the  survey. 
While  the  naval  force  at  the  beginning  of  hostilities  was  a  negli- 
gible quantity,  at  the  close  there  were  upwards  of  40  British  war 
vessels,  ranging  from  one-gun  gunboats  to  the  St.  Lawrence,  a  ship 
of  the  line  with  102  guns.  To  permit  these  vessels  to  navig&te  the 
lakes  with  confidence,  a  survey  was  absolutely  necessary. 

Owen  was  in  charge  of  the  survey  of  Lake  Ontario  till  its  com- 
pletion in  1816,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  Bayfield  who  surveyed 

*Read  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Ontario  Historical  Society  at  Bran-tford  June,  1911 

5 


6  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

Lake  Erie  in  1818,  Huron  and  Georgian  Bay  in  1819-22,  and  Su- 
perior in  1823-25.  In  1827,  Bayfield  was  appointed  to  the  survey 
of  the  St.  Lawrence  River  and  Gulf.  This  work  was  carried  on 
in  Gulnare  I,  1827-51,  and  Gulnare  II,  from  1852  till  his  promotion 
to  Rear  Admiral  in  1856.  He  retired  with  rank  of  full  Admiral, 
1867,  and  died  at  Charlottetown,  P.E.I.,  1885.  For  the  quality  of  his 
work  it  is  sufficient  to  quote  Capt.  Boulton  :  "While  making  a  sur- 
vey of  Georgian  Bay  and  the  North  Channel  of  Lake  Huron  .  . 
I  had  a  good  opportunity  of  witnessing  the  marvellous  quantity  and 
excellence  of  Admiral  Bayfield' s  work.  ...  I  doubt  whether  the 
British  Navy  has  ever  possessed  a  more  gifted  and  zealous  surveyor 
than  Bayfield.  He  had  a  marvellous  combination  of  natural  talent 
with  tremendous  physical  energy." 

The  charts  that  were  sufficient  for  navigation  in  the  "twen- 
ties" when  the  largest  vessel  on  Lake  Huron  measured  a  few  hun- 
dred tons  were  inadequate  for  the  vessels  of  a  half-century  later. 
In  1883,  the  Canadian  Government  secured  the  services  of  an  Ad- 
miralty surveyor,  Capt.  J.G.  Boulton,  R.N.  For  ten  years,  1883- 
93,  surveys  of  Georgian  Bay  and  North  Channel  were  carried  on  un- 
der his  direction.  In  1893,  he  resigned  to  return  to  duty  in  the  Navy 
and  was  succeeded  by  his  principal  assistant,  the  present  Chief 
Hydrographer,  Mr.  W.  J.  Stewart. 

So  far  as  the  names  given  by  Bayfield  are  concerned,  their  de- 
rivation is  a  matter  of  inference,  but  the  evidence,  in  some  in- 
stances, almost  amounts  to  a  demonstration.  At  the  date  of  his 
survey,  George  IV  was  King  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  hence 
Georgian  Bay  and  Lake  George  ;  Prince  William  Henry,  Duke  of 
Clarence,  was  Admiral  of  the  Fleet,  1811,  and  Lord  High  Ad- 
miral, 1827-28,  hence  Prince  William  Henry  Island  ;  William  Fred- 
erick, Duke  of  Gloucester,  married  Prince  William  Henry's  sister, 
Mary,  and  was  thus,  both  his  cousin  and  his  brother-in-law,  hence 
Gloucester  Point  and  Bay. 

In  1822,  Robert  Saunder  Dundas,  2nd  Viscount  Melville,  Sir 
Wm.  Johnstone  Hope,  Sir  Geo.  Cockburn  and  Wm.  Robt.  Keith 
Douglas  were  Lord  High  Admirals,  hence  Cape  Dundas,  Melville 
Sound,  Hope  Bay  and  Island,  .  Cockburn  Island  and  Point,  ,and 
Douglas  Bay  and  Point.  Capt.  Thos.  Hurd  was  Hydrographer 
from  1808  to  1823,  and  Capt  (afterwards,  Admiral  Sir)  William!  Ed- 
ward Parry,  from  1823-29,  and  James  Horsburg  was  Hydrograph- 
er to  the  East  India  Co.  ;  hence  Cape  Hurd,  Parry  Sound  and 
Island  and  Horsburg  Point.  Barrow  Bay  is  after  Sir  John  Bar- 
row, for  38  years,  1807-45,  Second  Secretary  to  the  Admiralty,  and 
Croker  Cape  and  Island  after  John  Wilson  Croker,  First  Secretary. 
1809-30  ;  Dyer  Bay,  after  John  James  Dyer,  for  many  years  Chief 
Clerk  of  the  Admiralty  ;  Hay  Island,  after  Viscount  Melville's  pri- 
vate secretary,  and  Amedroz  Island  after  an  Admiralty  official. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  7 

As  there  was  a  considerable  naval  establishment  on  the  Great 
Lakes,  Bayfield  named  a  number  of  features  after  naval  officers. 
James,  Lucas  and  Yeo  Islands,  after  Sir  James  Lucas  Yeo,  com- 
mander-in-chief  on  the  Great  Lakes,  1814  ;  Barrie  Island  after  Capt. 
Robt.  Barrie,  Acting  Commissioner  of  the  Navy  at  Kingston  : 
Bushby  Inlet,  Boucher  Point  Clapperton  Island  and  Channel,  Hen- 
vey  Inlet,  Wingfield  Point  and  Basin,  Worsley  Bay,  Grant  Island 
and  Thompson  Point  are  al  o  named  after  officers  of  the  Royal 
Navy  serving  on  the  Great  Lakes. 

Confiance  Rock  was  named  after  the  Confiance,  gunboat  on  Lake 
Huron,  formerly  the  U.  S.  S.  Scorpion,  captured  Sept.  6th,  1814. 
This  Confiance  was  the  third  bearing  her  name.  The  first  was 
Yeo's  first  command,  a  French  privateer  captured  by  him  at 
Muros  Bay,  and  the  second  was  Downie's  flagship  on  Lake  Cham- 
plain,  captured  by  the  Americans  at  Plattsburgh,  Sept.  nth,  1814, 
five  days  after  the  capture  by  the  British  of  what  was,  later,  Con- 
fiance  III.  Bedford  Island  is,  probably,  after  the  Duchess  of  Bed- 
ford, the  third  ship  in  which  Bayfield  served,  or,  after  Admiral 
William  Bedford. 

Colpoys  Bay,  Rous  Islands,  Mudge  Bay  and  Byng  Inlet  are  af- 
ter British  admirals,  the  last  named  being  the  admiral  who  was 
shot,  in  1757,  for  his  failure  to  relieve  Minorca — "pour  encourager 
les  autres."  Fitzwilliam  Island  and  Owen  Channel  are  after  Bay- 
field's  former  chief  in  the  survey  of  Lake  Ontario,  while  Cape  Com- 
modore, Owen  Sound,,  Point  William,  Campbell  Cliff  and  Point  Rich 
commemorate  Owen's  brother,  Commodore  Sir  E.  W.  C.  R.  Owen. 

Bayfield' s  assistants  were  :  Midshipmen  Philip  Edward  Collins 
and  Vidal,  "immortalized"  in  Philip  Edward  Island,  Collins  Inlet 
and  Vidal  Island.  Till  his  death  in  1835,  Collins  was  Bayfield' s 
assistant  in  his  survey  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  and  Vidal  was  the 
grandfather  of  the  late  Gen.  Vidal,  Ottawa. 

Franklin  Inlet — now  obsolete — and  Parry  Island  and  Sound 
were  named  after  the  famous  Arctic  navigators ;  Portlock  Harbour 
is,  probably,  after  Capt.  Portlock,  R.N.,  who  commanded  a  fur- 
trading  expedition  to  the  Pacific  Coast  and  published  an  account 
of  his  voyage  ;  Bigsby  Island  is  after  Dr.  J.  J.  Bigsby,  geologist 
to  the  Commission  appointed  under  the  Treaty  of  Ghent  to  define 
the  International  boundary  through  the  St.  Lawrence  and  the 
Great  Lakes. 

Of  the  Bayfield  family  there  are  :  Henry  Island,  Wolsey  Lake 
and  Bayfield  Sound  after  himself,  Elizabeth  Bay  after  his  mother, 
Helen  Bay  after  his  only  sister,  Julia  Bay  and  Point  after  a 
young  lady  of  Queibec.  Honora  Bay  and  Juliet  Cove  are,  proba- 
bly, after  other  young  ladies  of  his  acquaintance,  but  nothing  de- 
finite is  known  concerning  them. 


8  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY, 

The  other  names  given  by  Bayfield  are  cither  unimportant  or 
of  unknown  derivation. 

As  already  stated,  during  the  second  period  local  names  were 
given  to  many  features,  but  were  only  known  locally.  When  Capt. 
Boulton  commenced  his  survey  in  1883,  the  only  names  on  the 
charts  were  those  given  by  Bayfield,  sixty  years  earlier.  Conse- 
quently, while  there  was  a  second  "name-period,"  it  is  not  pos- 
sible to  separate  it  from  the  third,  namely,  those  given  by  Messrs. 
Boulton  and  Stewart.  As  the  circumstances  connected  with  the 
names  given  in  the  second  period  were,  in  nearly  every  case,  of  local 
interest  only,  they  were  incorporated  in  the  charts  and  no  descrip- 
tion of  them  is  necessary. 

The  names  given  by  Messrs.  Boulton  and  Stewart  can  be  divid- 
ed into  a  number  of  classes,  only  a  few  of  which  need  be  noticed. 
As  Capt.  Boulton  was  an  officer  of  the  Royal  Navy,  many  features 
bear  the  names  of  Admiralty  officials  and  naval  officers.  Thus, 
Brassey  Island,  Hamilton  Rock,  Hood  Patch  and  Hotham  Island 
are  after  Lords  of  the  Admiralty  ;  Dairy tmple  Rock  is  after  Alex. 
Dairy  tuple,  the  first  Hydrographcr  to  the  Admiralty,  and  Beau- 
fort Island  and  -Evans  and  Wharton  Points  after  recent  incum- 
bents ;  Browning  Cove  and  Island,  Goalen  Island,  Harris  Bank, 
Hoskin  Island,  Jamieson  Island,  Orlebar  Rock,  Fender  Islets,  Peter 
Islands,  Pettey  Rock,  Richards  Reef,  and  Scott  Island  are  after 
naval  surveyors.  An  island  is  named  after  Admiral  Lord  Charles 
Beresford  of  "Well  done,  Condor"  fame,  and  another  after  Admiral 
Sir  Thomas  Sabine  Pasley. 

The  war  of  1812-14  is  commemorated  by  features  named  after 
the  Chesapeake  and  her  captain,  Lawrence,  after  the  Shannon  and 
Lieut.  Provo  Wallis.  That  there  were  gunboats  on  the  lakes  after 
the  close  of  the  war  is  commemorated  by  islands,  etc.,  named  Faith, 
Minstrel,  Heron,  Rescue,  Gunboat,  Britomart,  Cherub,  Danville  and 
Drew.  Naval  officers  who  distinguished  themselves  in  1812-14  are 
not  forgotten  as  evidenced  by  Barclay,  Huntly  and  Finnis  Rocks, 
Frederic  Inlet,  Spilsbury  Island  and  Popham  Point. 

A  stucly  of  tke  "First  Conquest  of  Canada"  resulted  in  the 
naming  of  islands  after  Thomas  Kirke,  after  one  of  his  captains, 
Brewer  ton,  and  after  two  of  the  vessels,  the  Gervase  and  Abigail. 
The  "Life  of  Parry"  has  given  numerous  names  to  features.  The 
Ardent,  Borer,  Griper,  Hecla,  Niger,  Sceptre,  Tribune  and  Van- 
guard were  ships  in  which  Parry  served,  and  Baker,  Capel,  Cath- 
cart,  Coote,  Cornwallis,  Glyn,  Powys,  Quilliam  and  Ricketts  were 
captains  under  whom  he  served  ;  Hooper,  Hoppner,  Liddon,  Lyon 
and  Nias  were  subordinate  officers  during  his  Arctic  expeditions  ; 


IN  GEORGIAN  BAY,  6 

the  Christian  names  of  his  father  and  the  Christian  names  and  sur- 
names of  his  mother  and  wife  were  also  utilized. 

The  defence  of  Detroit,  1763,  is  commemorated  by  Beaver  and 
Gladwyn  Rocks  ;  the  naval  battle  in  Hudson  Bay,  1693,  by  Bering, 
Hampshire  and  Pelican  Rocks  and  French  explorers  and  missionar- 
ies by  Breboeuf,  Champlain,  Hennepin,  Joliette,  I/a  Salle,  Nicolet, 
Talon  and  Tonty  Islands  and  Roberval  Point  ;  Bauphine  Rock  is 
named  after  the  vessel  in  which  Verrazano  made  his  discoveries  in 
1524- 

The  Camperdown- Victoria  disaster,  in  1893,  furnished  names  for 
twenty  features,  nearly  all  of  which  were  after  officers  of  the  ill- 
fated  Victoria.  The  eldest  son  of  King  Edward  VII — died  1892 — is 
commemorated  in  Victor  Bank,  Albert  and  .Clarence  Channels  and 
Buke  Island.  The  Hudson  Bay  expeditions  of  1884,  1885  and  1886, 
account  for  Neptune  Island,  Gordon  Rock  and  Alert  Point.  Our 
Governors-General  are  represented  by  Aberdeen,  Buffer  in,  Elgin, 
I/ansdowne,  I/orne  and  Stanley  Islands  and  Monck  Point,  while 
Aide-de-camps  Colville,  Kilcoursie,  Kindersley  and  St.  Aubyn  have 
not  been  forgotten.  lyieutenant-Governors  Aikins,  Morris  and 
Schultz  of  Manitoba,  .Beverly  Robinson  and  Kirkpatrick  of  Ontario, 
Belleau,  Masson,  Robitaille  and  Ivetellier  de  St.  Just  of  Quebec, 
and  I/aird  and  Royal  of  the  Northwest  Territories,  have  had  their 
names  attached  to  features,  also  Sir  John  Abbott,  Sir  Mackenzie 
Bo  well,  Sir  Wilfrid  I/aurier,  Sir  Hector  I/angevin,  Sir  Francis 
Hincks,  Sir  A'.  T.  Gait,  Sir  Charles  Tupper  and  many  other  Minis- 
ters and  about  forty-five  Members  and  Senators. 

Of  the  remainder  it  is  only  possible  to  enumerate  the  classes  of 
name-derivations,  (i)  Scores  of  features,  principally  rocks  and 
shoals,  have  been  named  after  lake  vessels,  usually  because  the  dan- 
ger has  been  reported  by  one  of  her  officers  or  because  she  has 
achieved  an  undesired  fame  by  striking  it.  Many  others  have  re- 
ceived the  names  of  captains  and  other  officers  of  lake  vessels  and 
of  officials  of  navigation  companies.  The  families  and  near  rela- 
tions of  Messrs.  Boulton  and  Stewart  and  of  the  sailing-master, 
Capt.  McGregor,  account  for  thirty  names.  As  Mr.  Stewart  is  a 
graduate  of  the  Royal  Military  College,  Kingston,  he  attached  the 
names  of  some  twenty-five  officers  and  cadets  to  rocks,  etc.,  in  the 
North  Channel  and  St.  Mary  River.  The  surveys  were  carried  on 
under  the  Bepartment  of  Marine  and  Fisheries  and  the  names  of 
eighty  officials  of  that  and  other  departments  have  been  given. 
Seventeen  features  are  named  after  judges  of  the  Supreme  Court 
and  of  Ontario  courts  and  many  bear  the  names  of  residents  of  near- 
by towns,  of  clergymen,  of  citizens  of  Ottawa,  of  fishermen,  light- 
house-keepers and  Indian  chiefs. 


Place-Names  in  Georgian   Bay  and 
North  Channel 


ABBOTT.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Sir  J.  J.  C.  Abbott 
(1821-1892),  Premier,  1891-92. 

ABERDEEN.— Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  Lord  Aberdeen,  Gover- 
nor-General of  Canada,  1893-98. 

ABIGAIL. —Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  one  of 
Kirke's  vessels  at  taking  of  Quebec,  1629. 

ACADIA.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  propeller 
Acadia. 

*ADAMS. — Point,  Simcoe  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  possibly  after 
an  official  of  Penetanguishene  naval  station. 

AFRICA. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  steamibarge 
Africa. 

ATKINS  .—Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Hon.  J.  C. 
Aikins,  Lieut. -Governor  of  Manitoba,  1882-88. 

*AIRD. — Island  and  bay  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  derivation 
unknown  ;  named  by  Bayfield. 

AJAX. — Islands,    Parry  Sound  ;  probably  after  a  lake  vessel. 

ALBERT.— Channel,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Prince  Albert  Victor, 
Duke  of  Clarence,  (1864-1892). 

ALBERTA.— Rock,    Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  steamer  Alberta. 

ALEC  CLARKE.— Rock  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  fisherman  of  Col- 
lingwood. 

ALERT.— Point,  Cloche  I.,  Sudbury  ;  after  the  Alett,  an  Ad- 
miralty vessel,  loaned  by  the  Admiralty  to  the  Canadian  Govern- 
ment for  the  Hudson  Bay  expeditions,  1885  and  1886  ;  was  the -flag- 
ship of  the  Nares  Arctic  expedition,  1875-76. 

ALEXANDER.  —Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  private  secretary  to 
Sir  W.  C.  Van  Home. 


tfNames  distinguished  by  a  ft  have  same  derivation  as  the  first  feature  bearing  same  name. 

;din 
ther 

10 


*Names  preceded  by  an  asterisk  appeared  in  Bayfield's  chart,  and,  unless  otherwise  stated,  wer« 
sen  by  him.     All  Bayfield's  names  are  noted  whether  the  derivation  is  known  or  unknown. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  H 

ALEXANDER.— Inlet,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Alexander  Murray 
McGregor,  sailing-miaster  of  the  steamer  Bayfield. 

ALEXANDER.— Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Wm.  Alexander, 
clerk  in  Marine  and  Fisheries  Department. 

ALFRED.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Alfred  D.  De 
Celles,  General  Librarian,  Library  of  Parliament. 

ALICE.— Rock,  Muskoka  ;  after  Christian  name  of  Mrs.  Libbs, 
a  widow  of  Penetanguisheneg 

ALICE. — island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoina  ;  after  sister  of 
John  Woodman,  C.E.,  Winnipeg. 

ALICIA. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  daughter  of 
George  Marks,  Bruce  Mines.  \  \ 

ALLEN.— Rocks,  Muskoka  ;  probably  after  Henry  R.  Allen, 
clerk  to  Secretary  of  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camr 
perdown  off  Tripoli,  June  23rd,  1893. 

ALMON.— Island,  St.  John  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late  M.  B. 
Almon,  C.E.,  graduated  from  the  Royal  Military  College,  King- 
ston, 1883. 

ALVES. — Point,  Parry  Sound  ;   after  a  resident. 

ALWIN.— Rock,  Key  Harbour,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  seaman 
on  the  Bayfield. 

*AMEDROZ.  —Island,  North  Channel,  Sudbury  ;  named  by  Bay- 
field  after  a  clerk  in  the  Admiralty. 

AMELIA. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Miss  Amelia  Johnson, 
daughter  of  a  Parry  Sound  merchant. 

AMERICAN  CAMP.— Island,  Muskoka  ;  a  party  from  the  Unit- 
ed States  camped  on  it. 

AMYOT.—  Rocks,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late  Lt.-Col. 
Amyot,  M.P. 

ANCHOR. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  good  anchorage 
near  it. 

ft  ANCHOR.  —Island  and  rock,  Parry  Sound. 

tfANCHOR.— Rock,  Muskoka. 

ANDERSON. — Ledge,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Col.  Wm.  P.  Anderson, 
Chief  Engineer,  Department  of  Marine  and  Fisheries. 

*ANNARELLA. — Islands  Sudbury  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  de- 
rivation unknown  ;  name  now  obsolete. 

ANNIE.— Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  Annie  Clark,  fishing 
tug. 

ANN  LONG. — Bank,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  first  vessel  used  in 
the  hydrographical  survey  of  Georgian  Bay,  1883. 

ANSLEY.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  postmaster  at  Parry 
Sound. 


12  ON?  ARID  HI&TOfclCAt  SOCIETY, 

ANTHONY.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  an  Indian  of  Wikwemi- 
kong. 

APPELBE.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  physician  of  Parry 
Sound. 

ARAXES. — Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  Araxes,  a  lake  ves- 
sel. 

ARDENT.— Rock,  ParrySound  ;  after  H.M.S.  Ardent  in  which 
Parry  (q.v.)  served,  1815. 

ARIEL. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  schooner  Ariel. 

ARMSTRONG,— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  tourist,  named 
Armstrong. 

ARMSTRONG,— Rocks,  Parry  Sound;  after  Judge  Arm- 
strong. 

ARNOLD. — Point,  Aird  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  a  mill-owner,  Span- 
ish River. 

ft  ARNOLD.  —Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma. 

ARTHUR.— Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  Arthur  Street-Macklem, 
Toronto.  Indian  name  minnewawa,  meaning  'pleasant  sound'  (as  of 
wind  in  the  trees). 

ARTHUR.— Point,  Vidal  I.,  Manitoulin;  after  a  son  of  Capt. 
Boulton. 

ASHMEAD.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  Ashmead  Ellis  Bartlett 
Burdett-Coutts,  British  politician,  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1885. 

ASIA. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  steamer 
Asia,  lost  in  Georgian  Bay,  1882. 

ATHABASCA.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  steamer  Athabasca. 

ATLANTIC. --Rock,  St.  Joseph  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  the  steamer 
Atlantic. 

AUGUSTA. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  daughter  of  Capt. 
Cox,  R.N.,  naval  surveyor. 

AURORA.— Bank,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  schooner 
Aurora. 

AVA. — Island,  Muskoka ;  after  the  late  Lord  Ava,  eldest  son 
of  Lord  Duffer  in  ;  killed  in  the  Boer  war. 

AZOV. — Ledges,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  schooner  Azov,  strand- 
ed on  Squaw  I. 

BACON.— Island,  North,  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late  Lt.-Col. 
Bacon,  Ottawa. 

*BADGLEY.—  Island  and  rocks,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Bay- 
field,  1826,  probably  after  Dr.  Badgley,  a  prominent  fur-trader  who 
came  to  Montreal  about  1788,  d.  1841  ;  possibly  after  Capt.  Fran- 
cis Badgley,  ist  Batt.,  Montreal  City  Militia,  on  duty  during  war 
of  1812-14.  'Badgeley'  on  chart. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  13 

BAD  NEIGHBOUR.— Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  "the  worst  danger  in 
the  main  channel." 

BAILEY.—  Rock,    Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  fisherman. 
BAKER.— Group,   Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  captain  of  the  Trib- 
une, vessel  in  which  Parry  (q.v.)   served. 

BAKER.— Point,  Clapperton  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  after-  E.  Crow 
Baker,  sometime  M.P.  for  Victoria,  B.C. 

BALD. — Island  and  rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive. 
tfBALD.— Rock,   North  Channel,  Algoma. 

BAMAGESECK.— Bay,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  an 
Indian. 

BAMFORD.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the 
lighthouse-keeper. 

BAND. — Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  the  Bursar  of  the  Reformatory 
at  Penetanguishene. 

BANDIN.— Bluff,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  Roman  Catholic  priest, 
Wikwemdkong. 

BANSHEE.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Ban- 
shee, a  lake  trading  vessel. 

BAR. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive. 

ttBAR.— Point,   Simcoe. 

BARCLAY.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Com.  Robert  Heriot 
Barclay  (1785-1837),  British  commander  in  the  battle  of  Lake  Erie, 
1813  ;  post  captain,  1824. 

BARIL.— Point,  Parry  Sound  ;  stated  that  the  name  commem- 
orates the  loss  of  a  barrel  of  whiskey  at  this  point — a  doubtful 
explanation. 

BARNARD.— Bank,  Muskoka  ;  after  William  Barnard,  acting 
boatswain  in  the  "Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camperdown 
off  Tripoli,  1893. 

BARREN.— Island,    Sudbury  ;  descriptive. 

BARRETT.— Bank,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  boatman 
in  surveying  steamer  fiayfield. 

*BARRIE. — Island,  (Manitoulin  ;  after  Commodore  Robert  Bar- 
rie,  Acting  Commissioner  of  the  Navy  ai^  Kingston  after  the  Var  of 
1812-14  ;  made  a  tour  of  inspection  through  Simcoe  county  about 
1828. 

*BAR&IER.—  Island,   Bruce  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  descriptive. 

*BARROW.—  Bay,  Bruce  ;  after  Sir  John  Barrow  (1764-1843)  ; 
from  1807  to  1845,  Second  Secretary  to  the  Admiralty. 

BARTLETT.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  Ashmead  Ellis  Bartlett 
Burdett-Coutts,  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1885. 

BASS.— Group  of  islands,  Muskoka  ;  noted  fishing  ground  for 
bass. 


14  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

BASSETT.—  Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  captain 
of  a  Georgian  Bay  vessel. 

tfBASvSETT.—  Rock,  Parry  Sound. 

BATE.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Sir  Henry  N,  Bate,  Chair- 
man of  the  Ottawa  Improvement  Commission,  Ottawa. 

BATEAU. — Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  passages  between 
the  islands,  only  passable  by  small  boats  (bateaux). 

BATH. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Bath,  city,  Somerset, 
England.  Parry  (q.v.)  was  educated  in  Bath. 

BATOCHE.— Point,  Bedford  I.,  Sudbury  ;  after  the  action  at 
Batoche,  Sask.,  Riel  rebellion,  1885. 

BATTERY. — Bluff,  Manitoulin  ;  descriptive,  resembles  a  bat- 
tery. 

BATTURE.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  reef  (batture)  join- 
ing it  to  Vidal  Island. 

BAXTER. — Point,  Airdl.,  Algoma;  after  the  captain  of  a 
Spanish  River  tug. 

BAYARD. — Island  and  reef,  Manitoulin  ;  probably  after 
Thomas  Francis  Bayard  (1828-1898),  Secretary  of  State  (U.S.) 
1885-89  ;  first  U.  S.  ambassador  to  England,  1893. 

BAYFIELD.— Bluff,  Killarney  harbour,  Manitoulin  ;  from  "the 
surveying  steamer  Bayfield  having  occasionally  tied  up  to  it  during 
the  progress  of  the  survey  in  this  locality." 

ttBAYFIELD.— Rock,  Parry  Sound. 

BAYFIELD.— Sound,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Captain  (later,  Ad- 
miral) Henry  Wolsey  Bavfield,  naval  surveyor,  who  did  so  much 
excellent  work  upon  the  Great  Lakes  between  1817  and  1823. 

ttBAYFIELD.— &eef,   Manitoulin. 

BAY  OF  ISLANDS.— Bay,  Manitoulin  I.  ;  from  the  numerous 
islands. 

BAYVIEW.— Point,    Grey  ;    descriptive. 

BEACH. — Point,  Fitzwilliam  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  "derives  its  name 
from  the  fact  of  its  being  the  north-easterly  termination  of  a  long 
stony  beach." 

BEAR.— Island,  Georgian  Bay  ;  this  name  is  also  applieti  to 
numerous  other  features  in  Canada,  usually  owing  to  the  unusual 
numbers  of  this  animal  frequenting  the  vicinity  ;  or  to  some  un- 
usual occurrence  in  connection  with  it  at  the  time  of  naming  ;  or,  it 
is  the  translation  of  the  Indian  name. 

tfBEAR  BACK.— Island  and  shoal,   Algoma. 

ttBEAR.— Head,   Parry  Sound. 

BEAR'S  RUMP.— Island  and  shoal,  Bruce  ;  "the  name  given 
to  an  island  having  somewhat  the  outline  of  that  animal." 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  15 

BEATRICE.— Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Miss  Beatrice  John- 
son, daughter  of  a  Parry  Sound  merchant. 

BEATTY.—  Bay,  Clapperton  I.,  North  Channel  ;  after  the  man- 
ager of  the  Canadian  Pacific  lake  steamship  line,  1887. 

BEAUDRY.— Point,  Algioma  ;  probably  after  Hon.  J.  I,.  Beau- 
dry,  Montreal  ;  died  1886. 

BEAUFORT.— Island  and  reef,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after 
Rear-Admiral  Sir  Francis  Beaufort  (1774-1857),  Hydrographer  to 
the  Navy. 

BEAUMONT.—  Pouit,  Algoma  ;  after  Dr.,  H.  Beaumont  Small, 
Ottawa. 

BEAUSOLEIL.— Island,,  Simcoe  ;  after  a  French-Canadian  who 
came  from  Drummond  Island  ;  he  settled  here  in  1819.  "Prince 
William  Henry  I."  on  Bayfield's  chart. 

BEAUTY. — Island,    Goat  Channel,  Sudbury  ;  descriptive. 

ft  BEAUTY  .—Island,     Parry  Sound. 

BEAVER. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  schooner  Beaver  em- 
ployed in  the  defence  of  Detroit  during  Pontiac's  rebellion,  1763. 

BEAVER. — Island,  Strawberry  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  probably  con- 
tained many  beaver  in  the  early  days. 

ttBEAVER  ISLAND.— Harbour  and  bank,  Strawberry  I., 
Manitoulin. 

*BECK WITH.  —Island  ;  named  by  Bayfield,  after  Colonel  Sir 
Thomas  Sydney  Beckwith,  95th  Regt.,  served  in  the  Peninsula  • 
appointed  Quartermaster-General,  North  America,  Jan.  7,  1813  ; 
died  1831. 

*BEDFORD. — Islatod,  Sudbury  ;  named  by  Bayfield,  probably 
after  Admiral  William'  Bedford,  d.  1827.  Or,  after  the  Duchess  of 
Bedford  in  which  Bayfield  had  served. 

BEER. — Point,   Manitoulin  ;  after  a  clergyman,  Manitoulin  I. 

ttBEER.— Rock,  St.   Joseph  Channel,  Algoma. 

BEGLEY. — Channel  and  rocks,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  fisher- 
man. 

BELCHER.— Rock,  Altroma  ;  after  Admiral  Sir  Edward  Belch- 
er (1799-1877),  commanded  a  Franklin  search  expedition  of  four 
searching  vessels  and  a  store  vessel,  1852-54  ;  his  officers,  notably 
M'Clintock,  Mecham,  Richards  and  Osborn,  discovered  and  survey- 
ed thousands  of  miles  of  coast-line  of  the  Arctic  islands  of  Canada. 

BELIZE.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  tug  Belize. 

BELL.— Cove,  Cloche  I.,  Sudbury  ;  after  Dr.  Robert  Bell,  late 
Chief  Geologist,  Geological  Survey. 

BELLE.— Bay,  Parry  I.,  Parry  Sound;  after  Georgian  Bay 
steamer  Northern  Belle. 

tfBELLB.— Rock,    North   Channel,    Algoma, 


16  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

BELLEATL—  Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Sir  Nar- 
cisse  F.  .jMleau,  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Quebec,  1868-73. 

BEN  BACK. — Shoal,  Manitoulin  ;  after  one  of  crew  in  survey- 
ing steamer  Bayfield. 

BENJAMIN. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Christian 
name  of  lightkeeper  at  Clapperton  Island. 

BENNETT. — Bank,  Simcoe  ;  after  William  Humphrey  Bennett, 
M.P.  for  East  Simcoe  for  many  years. 

BENSON.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Col.  Thomas  Benson,  Mas- 
ter-General of  tKe  Ordnance,  Ottawa  ;  graduated  from  Royal  Mili- 
tary College  1883.  '  J  T 

BERESFORD. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Admiral  Lord 
Charles  Beresford,  ICC.B.,  G.C.V.O.,  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1886. 

BERGERON.— Point,  John  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  J.  G.  H.  Ber- 
geron, M.P.  for  Beauharnois ,  1879-1900. 

BERGIN.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late  Dar- 
by Bergin,  M.P.  for  Cornwall,  1872-74  and  1878-82  ;  for  Cornwall 
and  Stormont,  1882-96, 

^BERNARD.— Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Bayfield,  probably 
after  Alex?  Bernard,  R.N.,  Asst.  Surgeon  during  war  of  1812-14. 

BEVERLY.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Sir  John  Beverly  Rob- 
inson (1821-1896),  Lieut. -Governor  of  Ontario,  1880-87. 

BIG  DAVID. — Bay,  Muskoka  ;  after  an  Indian  chief. 

BIGGAR.— Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Charles 
A.  Biggar,  D.L-S.,  Dominion  Astronomical  Observatory. 

*BIGSBY.^Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  John  J. 
Bigsby,  M.D.,  geologist  to  the  International  Boundary  Commis- 
sion, appointed  under  the  Treaty  of  Ghent  ;  was  author  of  "Shoe 
and  Canoe." 

BILL  A'. — Rocks,  Aird  I.  Algoma  ;  after  the  late  Senator  Billa 
Flint,  Belleville. 

BIRCH. — Island,    North  Channel,  Algoma;  descriptive. 

BIRCHALL. — Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  maiden  name  of  Mrs. 
Charles  Band,  Penetanguishene. 

BIRD. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  characteristic  ;  fre- 
quented by  gulls,  etc. 

*BLACK  BILL.— Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  de- 
scriptive of  these  black  rocks  rising  a  few  feet  above  the  surface  of 
the  water. 

BLACKSTOCK.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Geo.  Tate  Black- 
stock,  K.C.,  Toronto. 

BLACKSTONE.—  Point,.  Clapperton  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  descrip- 
tive. 

BLAIR.— Landing,  Parry  Sound  ;  "after  the  present  occupant, 
of  the  farm  house  at  the  mouth  of  the  stream." 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  17 

BLAKE.— Island,  Sudbury  ;  after  late  Hon.  Edward  Blake, 
Minister  of  Justice,  1875-77  President  of  the  Privy  Council,  1877- 
78  ;  M.P.  for  West  Durham,  1867-75  and  1879-91  ;  M.P.  for  South 
Bruce,  1872-78  ;  elected  member  of  the  Imperial  Parliament  for 
Longford  VS.D.,  1892. 

BLIND. — Bay,   Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive. 

BLIND.— River,  and  BLIND  RIVER,  post  village,  Algoma  ;  af- 
ter the  formation. of  the  river  mouth  which  is  not  discernable  from 
the  lake  (Huron).  Named  by  the  French  who  settled  here,  1837  ; 
Indian  name  penebawabikong,  signifying  "a  sloping  rock." 

BLOCK.— Island,  Western  Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  blocks 
of  stone  on  top  of  rock. 

BLUE. — Mountains,  Grey  ;  name  given  by  the  early  voyageurs  ; 
when  seen  from  out  in  the  lake,  they  have  a  bluish,  hazy  appear- 
ance. 

BLUFF. — Point,    Parry  Sound  ;  characteristic. 

BOAT. — Cove,  Cloche  I.,  Sudbury  ;  descriptive,  navigable  only 
by  small  boats. 

tfBOAT. — Harbour   and  passage,   Cove  I.,  Bruce. 

ffBOAT.— Harbour   and  rock,  Manitoulin. 
,  ffBO AT.—  Passage,    Parry    Sound. 

BOGART.—  Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Ven.  James  John  Bog- 
art,  Archdeacon  of  Ottawa. 

BOLD. — Point,  Manitoulin  ;  "so  called  from  the  fact  of  there 
being  good  water  close  to  it." 

BOLGER.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  late  Francis  Bolger, 
O.L.S. 

BOLSTER-.— Bank,  Muskoka  ;  after  Thomas  Bolster,  Fleet-Sur- 
geon in  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camperdown  off 
Tripoli,  1893. 

BONNET. — Island,  Bruce  ;  "from  its  clump  of  dark  coloured 
trees,  somewhat  resembling  a  plume." 

BOOTH.— Rocks,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  J.  R.  Booth, 
manufacturer  and  lumber  merchant,  Ottawa,  late  President  of  Can- 
ada Atlantic  Railway. 

BORER.— Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  H.  M.  brig  Borer  in  which 
Parry  (q.v.)  served. 

BORRON.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  E.  B.  Borron,  Inspector 
of  Mines,  Ontario,  1872. 

BOSWELL.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late 
Col.  Boswell,  goth  Regt.,  Winnipeg. 

BOTTERELL.  —Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Edward  Botterell, 
sometime  Distributor  of  Printed  Documents,  House  of  Commons. 

*BOUCHER.— Point,  Grey  ;  named  by  Bayfield  after  Capt.  Wm. 
Boucher,  in  command  of  Lake  Erie  fleet,  in  1816. 


18  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

BOUCHER.— Rock,  Muskoka  ;  after  a  land  surveyor,  resident 
of  Penetanguishene. 

BOUCHER.— Island,.  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  fisherman. 

BOUCHIER.—  Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  naval  surveyor  of 
1865. 

BOULANGER.— Point,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after 
the  farmer  who  owned  it. 

BOULDER. — Bank,   Manitoulin,   and  bluff,   Bruce  ;   descriptive. 

BOUI/TON. — Reef,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Capt.  Boulton,  in  comr- 
mand  of  survey  of  Georgian  Bay  and  North  Channel,  1883-93  ;  now 
residing  in  Quebec. 

BOURINOT.—  Island  and  rock,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late  Sir 
John  Bourinot,  Clerk  of  the  House  of  Commons. 

BOURKE.— Point,  Muskoka  ;  after  Hon.  Maurice  A.  Bourkc, 
captain  of  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camperdown, 
1893- 

BOWELL.— Cove,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  Hon.  Sir  Mackenzie 
Bowell,  P.C.,  Premier,  1894-96. 

BOWEN.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Major 
Aylesworth  Bowen  Perry,  Commissioner,  Royal  Northwest  Mount- 
ed Police  ;  graduated  from  the  Royal  Military  College,  1880. 

BOWES. — Island,     Muskoka  ;    after  a  lawyer,  Parry  Sound. 

BOW'KER. — Point,  Algoma  ;  after  a  merchant  residing  at 
Marks  ville. 

BO  YD. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Sir  John  Alex- 
ander Boyd,  Chancellor  of  Ontario. 

ttBOYD.— Islands,    Parry  Sound. 

BOYLE. — Cove,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  draughtsman  at  the  Ad- 
miralty, 1880. 

BRADLEY.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late  F. 
Bradley,  Secretary,  Department  of  Railways  and  Canals. 

BRANDON.— Harbour,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a 
hotelkeeper,  Richards  Landing. 

BRASSEY.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  Lord  Brassey, 
Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1880,  1882-83  ;  First  Secretary  of  the  Ad- 
miralty, 1884-85. 

BRAY. — Reef,  Key  Harbour,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  seaman  in 
steamer  Bayfield. 

BREBOEUF.— Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  Rev.  Father  Breboeuf , 
Jesuit  missionary,  put  to  death  by  the  Iroquois,  1649. 

BREWERTON. ^-Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  one  of  the 
captains  of  Kirke's  squadron  which  captured  Quebec,  1629. 

BRIGGS. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  draughts- 
man at  the  Admiralty  in  1887. 


PIv  ACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  19 

BRITOMART.—  Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  British  gunboat. 

BROMLEY.—  Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  mill-owner  of  Pem- 
broke. 

BROTHERS.— Islands,  Alexander  Inlet,  Parry  Sound  ;  descrip- 
tive of  their  resemblance  to  each  other. 

BROWNING.— Cove  and  island,  Heywood  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  after 
an  officer  in  the  British  surveying  service. 

BRUCE. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algonm  ;  from  its  proximity 
to  Bruce  Mines  which,  probably,  after  James  Bruce,  Earl  of  Elgin 
and  Kincardine  (1811-63). 

BRYMNER.— Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  Dr.  Douglas 
Brymner,  Dominion  Archivist. 

BURBIDGE.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  George  Wheel- 
ock  Burbidge,  Judge,  Exchequer  Court,  Ottawa. 

BURGESS.— Reef,  Manitoulin  ;  after  late  A.  M.  Burgess,  Depu- 
ty Minister  of  the  Interior,  1883-97. 

BURKE. — Shoal,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  Georgian  Bay  pilot. 

BURTON. — Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  mill-owner  of  Byng  In- 
let. 

*BUSHBY.— Inlet,  Muskoka  ;  named  by  Bayfield  after"  Lieut. 
Bushby  in  command  of  the  schooner  Newash  on  Lake  Erie,  1816. 

tfBUSHBY.— Point,   Muskoka. 

BUSHY. — Island,    Alexander  Inlet,  Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive. 

*BUSTARD.—  Islands,  "Sudbury  ;  named  by  Bayfield,  probably 
after  numerous  wild  fowl  seen  on  them. 

BUS  WELL. — Point,  Algomia  ;  after  the  owner  of  a  mill  on 
North  Shore. 

BUTCHER  BOY.— Bank,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the 
lake  steamer  Butcher  Boy. 

BUZW ALES. —Cove.  Manitoulin  ;  after  an  Indian  at  Wikwemi- 
kong. 

*BYNG.—  Inlet,  Parry  Sound  ;  named  by  Bayfield  probably  af- 
ter Admiral  John  Byng  (1704-1757),  courtmartialed  for  his  failure 
to  take  Minorca  and  shot,  1757,  as  a  witty  Frenchman  said  : 
"pour  encourage r  les  autres." 

*CABOT.—  Head,  Bruce  ;  after  John  Cabot,  famous  explorer  ; 
commissioned  by  Henry  VIII,  discovered  Cape  Breton  and  Nova 
Scotia,  in  1497.  Name  appears  on  Bouchette's  map,  1815. 

tfCABOT    HEAD.— Shoal,  Bruce. 

CADOTTE.— Point,  Parry  I.,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  boatman  in 
ste&mer  Bayfield. 

CALEB.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Dr.  Caleb  Hillier  Parry, 
father  of  Admiral  Sir  W.  E.  Parry,  Arctic  explorer. 


20  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

CALF.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algonia  ;  so  named  as  it    is    a 
small  island  compared  with  others  in  vicinity. 

CALLADY.— Reef,    Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  boatman  in  surveying 
steamer  Bayfield. 

CA'LVIN. — Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  Hiram  A.  Calvin,  manager 
of  the  Calvin  Co.  ;  M.P.  for  Frontenac,  1892-96  and  1900-04. 

CAMBRIA.— Bank,  St.  Joseph  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  steamer 
Cambria. 

CAMEL. — Rock,    Parry  Sound  ;   descriptive  of  appearance. 

CAMERON.— Bay,  Aird  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  an  official  of  the 
Spanish  River  Lumber  Co, 

CAMERON. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  late  Chas.  Cameron, 
Collingwood,  manager,  Northern  Navigation  Co.,  and  owner  of  the 
island. 

CAMP. — Point,  John  I.,  Algoma  ;  from  W.  J.  Stewart  having 
camped  there. 

tfCAMP. — Cove,  Strawberry  I.,  Manitoulin. 

CAMP  ANA. —Shoal,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  steamer 
Campana. 

*CAMPBELL.— Cliff,  O-ey  ;  named  by  Bayfield  after  Admiral 
Sir  Edward  William  Carnrpbell  Rich  Owen  (q.v.)  ;  name  obsolete  ; 
now  called  "The  Claybanks." 

CAMPBELL.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  captain  of  a  lake 
steamer.  ' 

CAMPBELL.— Rock,  Parrv  Sound  ;  after  D.  C.  Campbell,  De- 
partment of  Marine  and  Fisheries  ;  graduate,  Royal  Military  Col- 
lege, 1883. 

ttCAMPBELL.  —Rock,  Manitoulin. 

*CAMPEMENT  D' OURS.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algo- 
ma ;  this  name,  probably,  commemorates  an  adventure  with  a 
bear.  Probably  a  local  name  placed  on  the  chart  by  Bayfield. 

CAMPING.— Point,  Vankouahne't  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  a  hydro- 
graphical  survey  party  camped  here. 

CAMPION.— Island,  Georgian  Bay,  Muskoka  ;  after  William  H. 
Campion,  Asst.  Paymaster  in  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the 
Camperdown  off  Tripoli,  1893. 

CANADA.— Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  fish- 
ery protection  cruiser  Canada. 

CANDLEMAS.— Shoal,  Muskoka  ;  named  on  Candlemas  day. 

CANOE.— Channel,  Squaw  Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  used  by  can- 
oes. 

ftCANOE.— Point,  S't.  Joseph  Island,  Algoma  ;  probably  same 
as  preceding. 

CAPEL-— R'ock,  Parry  Sound  ;  Lieut.  W.  E.  Parry  was  in 
1813,  appointed  toH.M.S.'La  Hogue,  Capt.  the  Hon.  Bladen  Capel. 


PlvACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  21 

CARADOC.— Point,  St.  Joseph  Island,  Algoma  ;  after  Christian 
name  of  Major-General  Ivor  John  Caradoc  Herbert,  commanding 
Canadian  Militia,  1890-95. 

CAREY.— Rocks,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Lieut. -Col.  H.  C.  Carey, 
graduate,  Royal  Military  College,  1884. 

CARIBOU. — Point,  Algoma  ;  after  the  caribou  seen  on  the 
island  in  early  days. 

CARLETON.— Point,  Amedroz  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a 
clerk  in  Marine  and  Fisheries  Department  ;  now  superannuated. 

CARLING. — Bay  and  point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  Sir 
John  Carling,  K.C.M.G.,  Postmaster-General,  1882-85  ;  Minister 
of  Agriculture,  1885-92  ;  Senator,  1891-92  and  1896-1911. 

ttCARLING.— Rock,   Parry  Sound. 

CARMONA.— Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the 
steamer  Carmona. 

CAROLINE.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  sister 
of  W.  J.  Stewart,  Chief  Hydrographer. 

CARON. — Point  and  reef,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  Sir  Joseph 
Philippe  Rene  Adolphe  Caron  (1843-1908),  Minister  of  Militia,  1880- 
92  ;  Postmaster-General,  1892-96. 

CARPMAEL-— Island,  Sudbury  ;  after  the  late  Charles  Carp- 
mael,  Director,  Meteorological  Service,  Toronto. 

CART  WRIGHT.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  Hon.  Sir 
Richard  John  Cartwright,  K.C.M.G.,  Minister  of  Finance,  1873- 
78  ;  Ministei  of  Trade  and  Commerce,  1896-1911. 

CASEY. — Shoal,  iNTorth  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late  George 
Elliott  Casey,  M.P.  for  West  Elgin,  1872-1900  ;  d.  1903. 

CASGRAIN.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  P.  B.  Cas- 
grain,  M.P.  for  I/Islet,  1872-91. 

CASTLE. — Island,    Bustard  Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive. 

CATARACT.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  schooner  Catar- 
act, wrecked  there. 

CATHCART.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  Lieut.  W.  E.  Parry  (q.v.) 
served  in  the  Alexandria,  Capt.  Cathcart,  1811-13. 

CATHERINE.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Lady  Parry,  nee 
Catherine  Edwards  Hankinson. 

CAVE. — Point,  Bruce  ;  'from  the  number  of  small  caverns  in 
its  cliffy  face." 

CEDAR. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  from  the  cedar 
trees  on  it. 

tfCEDAR.— Point,     Simcoe. 

CELTIC.— Rocks,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  steamer  Celtic. 


22  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

CENTRE.— Island,  and  CENTRE  ISLAND,  bank,  Manitoulin  ; 
descriptive  oi  position. 

CHAIN.— Island,    Parry  Sound  ;    descriptive. 

CHALLENGER.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  Challenger,  a 
famous  British  surveying  vessel. 

CHAMBERLAIN.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  steambarge 
Chamberlain. 

CHAMBERLAIN.— (Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  Rt.  Hon.  Jos- 
eph Chamberlain,  British  statesman. 

CHAMPLAIN. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Samuel  Cham- 
plain  (1567-1635),  famous  French  navigator  and  explorer. 

CHANCELLOR.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Sir  John  Alexan- 
der Boyd,  Chancellor  of  Ontario. 

CHANNEL-— Point,  Cove  Island,  Bruce  ;  descriptive  of  posi- 
tion near  a  channel. 

tfCHANNEL.— Point,  Cockburn  Island,  Manitoulin. 

tfCHANNEL.— Rock,  Fitzwilliam  Island,  Manitoulin,  and  rock, 
Parry  Sound. 

CHAPLEATL—  Cove  and  point, Manitoulin  ;  after  the  Hon.  Sir 
Joseph  Adolphe  Chapleau  (1840-1898),  Lieut.-Governor  of  Quebec, 
1892-98. 

CHAPMAN.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  error  for  Chip- 
man  f  after  C.  C.  Chipman,  sometime  Private  Secretary  to  the 
Minister  of  Marine  and  Fisheries  ;  later,  Commissioner,  Hudson's 
Bay  Co.,  Winnipeg. 

CHARITY. — Point,  Christian  Island,  Simcoe  ;  because  on 
Christian  Islands,  which  were,  at  one  time,  known  as  Faith,  Hope 
and  Charity. 

CHARLES.— Inlet,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  son  of  Capt.  Mc- 
Gregor (q.V.). 

CHARLIE.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  son  of  Admiral  Bay- 
field. 

CHAT  WIN. — Rock,  Algoma  ;  after  a  steward  in  surveying 
steamer  Bayfield. 

CHEROKEE.— Rock,  French  River,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the 
tug  Cherokee. 

CHERUB.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Cherub,  a 
British  gunboat  on  Lake  Huron. 

CHESAPEAKE.— Rock,  Georgian  Bay,  Parry  Sound  ;  after 
the  U.  S.  frigate  Chesapeake,  captured  bv  the  Shannon  in  war  of 
1812-14. 

CHEVALIER.— Islands,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Cheva- 
lier St.  Onge,  a  French  half  breed  who,  at  one  time  resided  on  the 
western,  and  larger,  of  the  two  islands. 


IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  <& 

CHICORA.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  steam- 
er Chicora. 

ttCHICORA.— Shoal,    St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma. 
CHIEF.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Solomon,  an  Indian  chief. 
*CHILES. — Point,   Simcoe  ;     name     obsolete  ;     now     Sturgeon 
Point  ;  possibly  alter  an  official  of  Penetanguishene  naval  station. 
*CHIN.— Cape,  Bruce  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  descriptive. 

CHINA.— Reef,  Bruce  ;  after  the  schooner  China,  wrecked  on 
this  reef. 

tfCHlNA.— Cove,  Bruce, 

CHIPPEWA.— Bank,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  lake  ves- 
sel. 

CHOWN.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  George  Y.  Chown,  Regis- 
trar, Queen's  University,  Kingston. 

*CHRISTI AN.  —Island,  Simcoe;  so  called  because  the  Christian- 
ized Hurons  and  the  priests,  fleeing  from  the  Iroquois,  took  refuge 
on  these  islands  and  endeavoured  to  found  a  new  settlement,  trust- 
ing that  they  would  there  be  safe  from  attack  ;  name  probably  ante- 
dated Bayfield' s  survey. 

CHRYSLER.— Rocks,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  F.  H. 
Chrysler,  K.C.,  Ottawa. 

CHURCH.— Hill,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Roman  Catholic  church 
near  the  hill. 

CHURCHILL.— Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  late  Lord  Ran- 
dolph Churchill  (1859-95),  British  statesman. 

CITY.—  Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  steamer  City  of  Mid- 
land. 

*CLAPPERTON.—  Channel,  Manitoulin;  probably  after  Lieut. 
B.  Clapperton  who  was  returned,  Oct.  16,  1815,  as  Acting  Lieuten- 
ant in  the  Star  on  Lake  Ontario.  Possibly  after  Hugh  Clapperton 
(1788-1827)  ;  made  extensive  explorations  in  the  Soudan  and  Niger, 
Africa. 

tt*CLAPPERTON.  —Island,  Manitoulin. 

tfCLAPPERTON.  —Harbour,  Manitoulin. 

CLARA.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Mrs.  W.  J. 
Stewart  (q.v.) 

CLARENCE.— Channel,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Albert  Victor, 
Duke  of  Clarence  and  Avondale,  eldest  son  of  Albert  Edward, 
Prince  of  Wales  ;  died,  1892. 

CLARKE.— Rock,    Muskoka  ;  after  the  captain  of  a  lake  tug. 

CLARKE. — Rock,     Parry    Sound  ;    after    a    fisherman. 

CLAUDE. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Claude  Johnson,  son  of 
a  Parry  Sound  merchant. 

CLAY. — Cliff,    Manitoulin  ;  characteristic. 


24  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

*CLOCHE.—  Island,  North  Channel,  Sudbury  ;  the  name  applied 
to  the  island  by  the  French,  from  the  rocks  ringing  like  a  bell  (Fr. 
cloche]  on  being  struck. 

ttCLOCHE.— Channel,  peninsula,  bhifi  and  mountain,  Sudbury. 
ttLITTLE  CLOCHE.— Island,  Sudbury. 

*CLUB. — Island,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  derivation 
unknown. 

tfCLUB.—  Harbour,    and  CLUB  ISLAND,   ledge,  Manitoulin. 

CO  ATS  WORTH. —Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a 
well-known  Toronto  family. 

*COCKBURN.>— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Vice-Admiral  Sir 
George  Cockburn  (1772-1853),  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1834-35  and 
1841-46.  Parry  says  that  he  named  the  northern  portion  of  Baffin 
Island  after  Cockburn,  "whose  warm  personal  interest  in  every- 
thing relating  to  northern  discovery  can  only,  be  surpassed  by  the 
public  zeal  with  which  he  has  always  promoted  it."  Or,  after 
Lieut. -Col.  Francis  Cockburn,  Deputy  Quartermaster  General  who 
was  in  attendance  on  the  Earl  of  Dalhousie  on  a  tour  of  inspec- 
tion, 1822. 

tt*COCKBURN.— Point,  Simcoe  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  name  ob- 
solete ;  now  called  Gidley  Point. 

COFFIN. — Cove  and  hill,  Grey  ;  after  a  farmer  residing  there. 

COGANASHENE.—  Point,  Muskoka  ;  abbreviation  of  Mhmacog- 
anashene  (q.v.). 

COLBY. — Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algom-a  ;  after  Hon. 
C.  C.  Colby,  M.P.  for  Stanstead,  1867-91. 

COLE. — Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  Church  of  England  clergy- 
man at  Manitowaning. 

COLIN.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  D.  Colin  Campbell,  assistant  to 
Capt.  Boulton  during  survey  of  Georgian  Bay. 

tfCOLIN.— Rock,    Parry  Sound. 

*COLLINS.—  Inlet,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Philip  Edward  Collins, 
assistant  to  Capt.  Bayfield  during  the  survey  of  Lakes  Huron  and 
Superior. 

tfCOLLINS.— Bay    and  reef,  Parry  Sound. 

COLLJNS.—  Reef-,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Simcoe  ;  after  the  light- 
housekeeper,  Geo.  Collins,  Collingwood., 

*COLLS. — Bay,  Georgian  Bay,  Simcoe  ;  name  obsolete  ;  now 
Hog  Bay  ;  possibly  after  an  official  of  Penetanguishene  naval  sta- 
tion. 

COLMER.— Ground,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  J.  G.  Col- 
mer,  from  1881  to  1903,  Secretary  to  the  High  Commissioner  for 
Canada,  London. 

*COLPOYS.—  Bay,  Bruc  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  after  Rear-Ad- 
miral Sir  Edward  Griffith  Colpoys  ;  died  1832. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  25 

COI/TER.—  Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  N.  R. 
Colter,  M.P.  for  Carlcton,  N.B.,  1891-96. 

COIyVIIyLE.—  Island  and  bank,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after 
Major  the  Hon.  C.  R.  W.  Colville,  Secretary  to  I,ord  Stanley, 
1888-1892. 

*COMB. — Point,  Algoma  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  derivation  un- 
known. 

*COMMODORE.— Cape,  Bruce  ;  after  Commodore  Sir  E.  W.  C, 
R.  Owen  (q.v.)  ;  commanded  naval  forces  on  Great  Lakes  in  1815. 

CONE. — Island,    Georgian  Bay,  Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive. 

*CONFIANCE.—  Rock,  Bruce  ;  after  the  Confiance  (2)  gunboat 
on  Lake  Huron;  formerly  the  TJ.  S.  S.  Scorpion,  captured  Sept.  6th, 
1814.  The  first  Confiance  was  Yeo's  (q.v.)  first  command,  a 
French  privateer  captured  by  him  at  Muros  Bay  ;  the  second  was  a 
36^gun  ship  carrying  Downie's  flag  on  L/ake  Champlain.,  captured  off 
Plattsburg,  Sept.  nth,  1814  ;  the  third  was  the  namesake  of  Con- 
fiance  rock  ("shoal"  on  Bay  field's  chart). 

CONMEE. — Island,  North  Channel  ;  after  James  Conmee,  Port 
Arthur  ;  M.P.  for  Thunder  Bay  and  Rainy  River,  1904-11. 

COOK.— Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  John  Cook,  first  set- 
tler there. 

COOK.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma;  after  H.  H.  Cook, 
M.P.  for  North  Simcoe,  1872-78  ;  for  East  Simcoe,  1882-91. 

COOPER.— Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  R.  W. 
Cooper,  clerk  in  Rideau  Canal  Office,  Ottawa. 

COOTE.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  lyieut.  W.  E.  Parry  command- 
ed one  of  the  boats  during  a  "cutting-out"  expedition  up  the  Con- 
necticut River  in  1814.  The  expedition  was  under  the  command  of 
Capt.  Coote  of  H.  M.  brig  Borer. 

COPPER. — Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  this  name  is 
also  applied  to  numerous  other  features  in  Canada,  usually  owing 
to  the  real  or  alleged  discovery  of  this  mineral  in  the  vicinity. 

COPPERHEAD.— Island  and  harbour,  Parry  Sound  ;  from  cop- 
perhead snakes  found  on  the  island. 

COPPERMINE.— Point;  Algoma  ;  descriptive. 

CORBIER.— Cove,  West  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  half-breed 
chief  living  at  Honora  Bay. 

CORBMAN.— Point,  Franklin  Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  resi- 
dent of  the  locality. 

CORISANDE. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  schooner  Cori- 
sande. 

CORNER.— Rock,   Parry  Sound  ;   descriptive. 

CORNET.— Point,    Griffi/ths  Island,  Grey  ;  after  a  fisherman. 


26  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

CORNWALUS. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Admiral  the  Hon. 
W.  Cornwallis,  who  was  in  command  of  the  Channel  fleet  in  1803. 
Parry  went  to  sea  for  the  first  time,  in  Cornwallis'  flagship. 

COSTIGAN. — Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  Hon.  John  Costi- 
gan,  Minister  of  Inland  Revenue,  1882-92  ;  Secretary  of  State, 
1892-94  ;  Minister  of  Marine  and  Fisheries,  1894-96. 

COUNTS.— Bank,  Key  Harbour,  Parry  Sound  ;  resident,  Sault 
Ste.  Marie. 

COURSOlv. — Bay,  lUgonm  ;  after  the  late  C.  J.  Coursol, 
M.P.  for  Montreal  East,  1878  till  death  in  1888. 

COURTNEY.— Island  and  bank,  Manitoulin  ;  after  J.  M.  Court- 
ney, C.M.G.,  I.S.O.,  late  Deputy  Minister  of  Finance. 

COUTIyBE.— Island,  Thunder  Bay  ;  after  Chas.  R.  Coutlee, 
C.E.,  Chief  Engineer,  Ottawa  River  Regulation  ;  graduate,  Royal 
Military  College,  1886. 

*COVE.—  Island,   Bruce  ;  descriptive. 

tfCOVE  ISI/AND.— Harbour  and  ground,  Bruce. 

COVE  OF  CORK.— Bay,  Bruce  ;  probably  from  fancied  resem^- 
blance  to  cove  at  foot  of  bay,  to  Cove  of  Cork,  Ireland. 

COWIE.— Reef,  Muskoka ;  after  F.  W.  Cowie,  Chief  Engineer, 
Montreal  Harbour  Commission  ;  sometime,  Chief  Engineer,  St. 
I/awrence  ship  channel. 

COWPER.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  George  B.  Cowper,  who 
was  Chief  Clerk,  Crown  I/ands  Department,  Ontario. 

COX. — Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  draughts- 
man in  Department  of  Marine  and  Fisheries. 

CRA'CROFT.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Miss  Sophia  Cracroft, 
niece  of  Sir  John  Franklin,  the  famous  Arctic  explorer. 

CRAFTSMAN.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  the  schooner  Crafts- 
man. 

CRAWFORD.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Hon. 
Thomas  Crawford,  M.P. P.  for  West  Toronto  since  1898  ;  Speaker 
of  legislature,  1907. 

CREAK.— Island,  North  Channel,  Sudbury  ;  after  a  naval 
officer,  Admiralty  1890— probably  Capt.  Ettrjck  William  Creak, 
C.B.,  retired,  1891. 

CREASOR.— Bight,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Judge  Creasor,  Owen 
Sound. 

CREBO.— Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  Killar- 
ney  merchant. 

CREIGHTON.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  .  after  David  Creighton, 
M.P. P.  for  North  Grey,  1875-90  ;  Asst.  Receiver-General,  Toronto, 
1895. 

CRESCENT. — Island,  Simcoe  ;  descriptive  of  its  crescentic  out- 
line. 

tt*CRESCENT.—  Island  Manitoulin,  and  island,  Parry  Sound. 


P'LACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  27 

CRICKET.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Miss 
C.  Clark,  Henderson,  N.  Carolina. 

*CROKER.— Cape,  Bruce  ;  named  by  Bayfield,  after  John  Wil- 
son Croker  (1780-1853),  Secretary  to  the  Admiralty  1809-30  ;  he 
was  an  enthusiastic  supporter  of  the  search  for  the  Northwest  pas- 
sage and  of  the  Franklin  search. 

ft*CROKER.—  Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma. 

CROOKS.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late  Hon. 
Adam  Crooks,  M.P.  P.  for  West  Toronto  and,  later,  South  Oxford  ; 
Provincial  Treasurer  1872-76  ;  Minister  of  Education,  1876-83. 

CROSS. — Island,  Serpent  Harbour,  Algoma  ;  "so-called  because 
it  lies  athwart  the  channel  into  the  harbour." 

tfCROSS.—  Ledge,    Parry  Sound. 

CROWLEY.— Reef,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  fisherman 
at  Grant  fishery  station. 

CRUISER.— Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the 
Cruiser,  purchased  from  Allan  Gilmour,  Ottawa,  and  used  in  fish- 
ery protection  service  on  Geeorgian  Bay  and  Lake  Huron. 

CUBA.— Rock,  Georgian  Bay,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the,  steamer 
Cuba. 

CUMBERLAND.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  steam- 
er Cumberland. 

CUNNINGHAM.  ^Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Cyril  Cunningham 
Boulton,  son  of  Capt.  Boulton. 

CURRAN.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Hon.  J.  J. 
Curran,  M.P.  for  Montreal  Centre,  1892-95  ;  Solicitor-General, 
1892-95  ;  Judge,  Superior  Court,  Montreal  District,  1895. 

CUTKNIFE.— Cove,  Bedford  I.,  Sudbury  ;  after  action  at  Cut- 
knife  Creek,  Saskatchewan,  Riel  rebellion,  1885. 

CYRIL. — Cove,  Manitoulin;  after  Cyril  Cunningham  Boulton, 
a  son  of  Capt.  Boulton.  » 

tfCYRIL.— Point,  Parry  Sound. 

DALRYMPLE.  —  Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Alex- 
ander Dalrymple  (1737-1808),  first  Hydrographer  to  the  Admiralty. 

DALTON.— Reef,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late  Dalton 
McCarthy,  M.P.  for  Cardwell,  1874-78  ;  M.P.  for  North  S&ncoe, 
1878-98. 

ttDALTON.— Reef,   Nottawasaga  Bay,  Grey. 

DALY.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late  Hon.  T. 
M.  Daly,  Minister  of  the  Interior,  1892-96. 

tfDALY.— Point,    Christian  I.,  Simcoe. 

DANIEL.— Shoal,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Rev.  A. 
W.  Daniel,  Rothesay,  N.B.  :  graduate,  Royal  Military  College, 
1881. 


28  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

DANVILLE. — Ground,  Manitoulin  ;  after  commander  of  a 
gunboat  on  Great  Lakes. 

DARBY.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Darby  Ber- 
gin,  M.D.  (q.v.),  sometime  M. P.  for  Cornwall  and  Stormont. 

*DARCH.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  named  by  Bay- 
field  ;  derivation  unknown. 

DARLING. — Reef,  Bruce  ;  after  a  fisherman. 

DART.— Rock,  Alexander  Inlet,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  British 
surveying  vessel,  470  tons.  Another  Dart  was  with  Nelson  at  Cop- 
enhagen. 

DAUPHINE.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  in  1524,  Verrazano,  in 
the  Dauphine,  explored  the  Atlantic  coast  of  North  America  from 
lat.  34  degrees  north,  to  Newfoundland. 

DAVID.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late  Hon. 
David  Mills  (1831-1903),  Minister  of  Justice,  1876-78  and  1897-1902. 

DA  VIES. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Sir  Louis 
Davies,  K.C.M.G.,  Justice,  Supreme  Court  of  Canada  ;  Minister  of 
Marine  and  Fisheries,  1896-1901. 

DAVIN.— Point,  John  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  Nicholas  Flood  Davin, 
K.C.  (1843-1900)  ;  M.P.  for  Assiniboia  West,  1887-1900. 

DAVY. — Island  and  rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  maternal  parent 
of  Mrs.  W.  J.  Stewart. 

DAWSON.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late  S. 
E.  Dawson,  M.P.,  whose  representations  induced  the  Dominion  Gov- 
ernment to  commence  the  survey  of  Georgian  Bay. 

*DAWSON.— Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Bayfield,  probably 
after  George  Robert  Dawson,  Secretary  to  the  Admiralty,  1834-35. 

DEAD. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  "from  the  fact  of  its  having 
been  in  olden  times  the  burial  place  of  the  Indian  tribes  frequenting 
these  parts." 

DEAN. — Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  David  and  Thomas  Dean  who 
own  timber  lands  here. 

DE  CAEN.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Mgoma  ;  after  Emery  de 
Caen,  who  received  Quebec  when  restored  by  English,  1632,  after 
capture  by  Kirke. 

DE  CELLES.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma;  after  Alfred 
D.  De  Celles,  General  Librarian  of  Parliament. 

DEEP.— Cove,    Huckleberry    I.,     Parry  Sound  ;   descriptive. 

DEEP. — Point,  Darch  I.  Algoma  ;  descriptive  of  water  off 
point. 

DEEP  WATER.— Island,  Fraser  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  from  having 
deep  water  nearly  all  around  it. 

tfDEEP  WATER.— Point,  Parry  I.,  Parry  Sound. 
tfDEEPWATER. —Point,  Griffith  I.,  Grey. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  29 

DEER. — Island,  Muskoka  ;  from  its  proximity  to  Moose  Deer 
Point. 

DELF. — Island,    Muskoka  ;  from  broken  crockery  found  on  it. 

DELOS. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  probably  after  a  half-breed. 
Possibly  after  Delos,  an  island  in  the  Aegean  Sea — the  mythical 
floating  island  and  birthplace  of  Apollo  and  Artemis. 

DENISON.—  Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Col.  George 
Taylor  Denison,  police  magistrate,  Toronto. 

DENNIS.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Colonel 
Stoughton  Dennis,  C.M.G.,  Surveyor-General,  1871-78  ;  Deputy 
Minister  of  the  Interior,  1878-81. 

DENT. — Bay  and  rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  resident  of  the 
locality. 

DEPOT. — Bay,  Parry  Sound  ;  takes  its  name  from  being  the 
landing  place  in  past  years  of  the  supplies  for  the  Parry  Island  In- 
dians. 

DERING. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  an  armed  Hudson's  Bay 
Co.  vessel,  which  took  part  in  fight  with  French  fleet  under  d'lber- 
ville,  1697. 

DE  ROBERVAL.-^Point,  Algoma  ;  after  Jean  Francois  de  la 
Roque,  Sieur  de  Roberval,  first  viceroy  of  New  France,  1540. 

DESJARDINS.— Bay,  St.  Joseph  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  Hon.  Al- 
phonse  Desjardins,  M.P.  for  Hochelaga,  1874-92  ;  Senator  for  De 
Lorimier  division,  1892. 

DEVIL. — Gap,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  an  experienced 
navigator  states  that  it  was  so  called  because  it  is  exceedingly  diffi- 
cult to  navigate  it. 

tfDEVIL.—  Island,    St.   Joseph    Channel. 

DEVIL. — Island,  Bruce  ;  the  island  is  surrounded  by  shoal  wa- 
ter and  dangerous  for  vessels  to  approach. 

tfDEVIL  ISLAND.— Bank  and  channel,  Bruce. 

DEVILS  ELBOW.— Channel,  Parry  Sound  ;  from  a  sharp  bend 
in  the  channel. 

DEWDNEY.— Island  and  rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after 
the  Hon.  Edgar  Dewdney,  Minister  of  the  Interior,  1888-92,  and 
Lieut. -Governor  of  British  Columbia,  1892-97. 

DIGBY.— Bank,  Muskoka  ;  after  Hon.  Gerald  F.  Digby,  Lieu- 
tenant in  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camper  down, 
1893. 

DIVIDED.— Island,    Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive. 

DIXIE.— Rock,   North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  tug  Dixie. 

DIXON.— Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  fisherman. 

DIXON.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  naval  sur- 
veyor- 


30  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

DOBIE. — Point,  Algoma ;  after  James  S.  Dobie,  merchant, 
Thessalon. 

DOG. — Point,  Mississagi  Island,  Algoma  ;  from  a  dog  being 
found  there  during  the  survey. 

tfDOG  POINT.— Shoal,  Algoma. 

DOKIS. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  late  Chief  Dokis,  Nipissing 
band  of  Indians. 

DOROTHY.— Inlet,  Algoma  ;  after  Mrs.  W.  P.  Anderson  (q.v.), 
Ottawa. 

DOT. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  descriptive  (very 
small). 

DOTY.— Rocks,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a   tug. 

DOUBLE.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  "divided  into  two  parts, 
hence  the  name." 

tfDOUBLE. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma,  and  island,  Shnr 
coe. 

ttDOUBLE.— Cove,  island,  and  DOUBLE  ISLAND,  ledge, 
Manitoulin. 

DOUBLE  TOP.— Island,  Western  Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  "it  is 
nearly  divided  into  two  small  rocks." 

DOUCET.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  aftei  Emile  Dou- 
cet,  C.E.,  District  Engineer,  National  Transcontinental  Ry.  ;  gradu- 
ate of  Royal  Military  College,  1880. 

*DOUGLAS.—  Bay,  Simcoe  ;  named  by  Bayfield,  probably  after 
Win.  Robt.  Keith  Douglas,  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1822-27  ;  name 
obsolete  ;  now  Thunder  Bay. 

DOUGLAS. — Point,  Simcoe  ;  after  a  marine  surveyor  (voyag- 
eur's  statement,  probably  wrong). 

DOWELL.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  merchant  of  Parry 
Sound. 

DOYLE.— Rock,  Smith  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  one  of  the  crew 
of  the  Bayfield. 

DRAPER.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Hon.  W.  H.  Draper,  Chief 
Justice  of  the  Queen's  Bench,  1863-68  ;  Chief  Justice  of  Ontario, 
1868-77. 

DREVER.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  fisherman. 

DREW. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  commander 
of  a  gunboat  on  Great  Lakes  in  1838. 

DRIFTWOOD.— Cove,     Bruce  ;    characteristic. 

DUETT. — Rock,  Georgian  Bay,  Parry  Sound  •  after  a  boatman 
in  steamer  Bayfield. 

DUFFERIN.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  Rt.  Hon.  Frederick 
Temple  Blackwood,  Marquis  of  Dufferin  and  Ava  (1826-1902),  Gov- 
ernor-General of  Canada,  1872-78. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  31 

DUFFY. — Island,   Parry  Sound  ;   after  a  fisherman. 

DUKE.— Island,  and  rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Prince  Albert 
Victor,  Duke  of  Clarence  (1864-1892). 

DUNCAN.— Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  Marks- 
ville  hotelkeeper. 

*DUNDAS.— Cape,  Bruce  ;  named  by  Bayfield  after  Robert 
Saunders  Dundas,  2nd  Viscount  Melville  (1771-1851)  ;  First  Lord'of 
the  Admiralty,  1812-27,  and  1828-30. 

DUNLEVIE.— Point,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma;  after  the 
late  John  Dunlevie,  Winnipeg. 

DUROQUET.—  Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  R.  C.  priest  at 
Wikwemikong. 

DUTCHMAN.— Head,   Manitoulin  ;  descriptive  of  outline. 

DUVAL.— Island,  St.  Joseph  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  Prof.  Duval, 
Royal  Military  College,  Kingston. 

DWYER. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  an  engineer, 
Algoma  Mills. 

*DYER. — Bay,  Bruce  ;  named  by  Bayfield  after  John  Jones 
Dyer,  Chief  Clerk  of  the  Admiralty. 

DYMENT. — Rock,     Algoma  ;  after  a  lumber  merchant,  Barrie. 

EAGLE. — Cove  and  point,  Cove  I.,  Bruce  ;  after  the  schooner 
Eagle. 

EAGLE. — Island  and  point,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  probably 
same  as  Eagle  rock. 

EAGLE. — Rock,    Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  steamer  Eagle. 

ttEAGLE.— Reef,   Parry  Sound. 

EAGLE  NEST.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  eagle's  nest  on  it. 

EAGOR. — Bank,  Muskoka  ;  after  a  boatman  in  steamer  Bay- 
field. 

EARL.— Patches,  Bruce  ;  after  an  old  resident  (pilot)  of  Tober- 
mory. 

EATON. — Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  Church  of  England  clergy- 
man. 

ECHO. — Island,   Bruce  ;,  characteristic. 

EDITH.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Mrs.  F. 
A,  Beament,  Ottawa,  nee  Belford. 

EDSALL. — Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  old  name  of  surveying  steattir 
er  Bayfield. 

EDWARD.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Admiral  Sir  William 
Edward  Parry  (q.v.). 


32  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

EDWARDS.— Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Lady  Parry,  nee  Cath- 
erine Edwards  Hankinson. 

*EGG. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  many  gulls'  eggs  were 
found  on  the  island. 

EIGHT-FATHOM.—  Patch,  Georgian  Bay,  Bruce  ;  after  the 
depth  of  water  on  it. 

EKOBA. — Bay,  Algoma;  corruption  ot  Echo  Bay  ;  which  from 
Echo  Iyake  ;  latter  named  after  the  "echo"  from  the  bluffs  on  its 
shores. 

ELEVEN-FOOT.— Rock,  Sudbury  ;  irom  having  that  depth  of 
water  on  it. 

ELGIN.— Rock,  Parry  S  und  ;  after  the  Earl  of  Elgin  (1811- 
63)  ;  Governor-General  of  Canada,  1847-53. 

^ELIZABETH.— Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Captain  Bay  field 
(q.v.)  after  his  mother. 

ttBLIZABETH.— Point,  Manitoulin. 

ELLIS.— Point,  Algoma;  after  Ashmead  Ellis  Bartlett  Burdett- 
Coutts,  British  politician,  son  of  Ellis  Bartlett,  U.S.A.  ;  m.  Bar- 
^oness  Burdett-Coutts,  i88i,and  assumed  the  surname  "Burdett- 
Coutts"  ;  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1885. 

ELM. — Island,  Algoma  ;  "from  a  single  tree  of  that  nature 
which  it  still  preserves." 

ttBLM-TREE.— Island,  Parry  Sound. 

EMERALD.— Point,  Serpent  Harbour,  Algoma;  after  the  steam- 
er Emerald. 

EMERY.— Reef,,  Algoma;  after  the  U.S.  tug  Temple  Emery. 

EMILY. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  wife  of 
Col.  Boswell,  90th  &egt.,  Winnipeg. 

EMILY  MAXWELL.— R  ef,  Fitzwilliam  I.,  iManitoulin  ;  after 
the  U.S.  schooner  Emily  Maxwell  ;  stranded  on  Fitzwilliam 
Island. 

EMPIRE.— Ledge,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  'Cana- 
dian lake  steamer,  United  Empire. 

ENGLISH.— Point,  Cloche  I.,  Sudbury  ;  after  a  Little  Current 
hotelkeeper. 

ERIE. — Shingle,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  Erie,  a  trading  vessel, 
wrecked  on  it. 

ttERlE.— Channel  and  bank,  Manitoulin. 

ESTHER.— Cliff,    Grey  ;•  after  the  daughter  of  a  farmer. 

ESTHER.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  sistet  of  Capt.  Boul- 
ton. 

ETHEL.— Rock,  Aird  I.  Algoma;  after  Capt.  Boulton's  daugh- 
ter. 

EUL AS. —Ground,    Algoma  ;   after  Hon.   George  Eulas    Foster, 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  33 

Minister  of  Marine  and  Fisheries,    1885-88  ;     Minister     of     Finance, 
1888-96  ;  Minister  of  Trade  and  Commerce  since  1911. 

EUROPA.— Reef,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Europa,  a 
lake  vessel. 

EVANGELINE.— Patch,  Algoma  ;  after  Bishop  Sullivan's 
yacht. 

EVANS.— Point,  Badgley  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Sir  Frederick 
John  Owen  Evatis  (1815-85),  British  hydrographer. 

EVELYN.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Evelyn  Steele,  Dept.  of 
Secretary  of  State,  Ottawa. 

EVERARD.— Reef,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Commander  Thomas 
Everard,  R.N.,  who  came  from  H.M.  brig  Wasp  then  lying  at 
Quebec  ;  commanded  expedition  of  Aug.  I,  1813,  against  PI  alts-burg 
and  Saranac. 

FAG  AN. — Ground,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  waiter  in  steamer  Bay- 
field. 

FAITH. — Point,  Beckwith  I.,  Simcoe  ;  after  the  armed  schoon- 
er Faith. 

FALSE  DETOUR.— Channel  between  Cockburn  and  Drummond 
Islands  ;  called  "False"  to  distinguish  it  from  the  true  Detour 
channel  which  is  at  the  other — western — end  of  Drummond  Island.; 
called  "Detour'1  because  it  was  the  passage  used  by  the  fur-trad- 
ers when  going-  to  Mackinac.  As  Mackinac  was  off  at  one  side  of  the 
regular  route  from  Montreal  to  Lake  Superior,  they  were  thus  forc- 
ed to  make  a  rc detour"  to  reach  it. 

FANNY.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Christian  name  of  Mrs. 
Bayfield. 

FARR. — Rock,    Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  fisherman. 

FA WCETT.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Thomas 
Fawcett,  D.L.S.,  Niagara  Falls. 

FAWKES.— Rock,  Muskoka  :  after  Ayscough  G.  H.  Fawkes, 
midshipman  in  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camperdown 
off  Tripoli,  June  23,  1893. 

FELIX.— Rock,  Muskoka  ;  after  Felix  Foreman,  fleet  engineer 
in  the  Victoria  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camperdown,  1893. 

FINNIvS.— Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Capt.  Finnis  who  was  in 
command  of  the  Queen  Charlotte  and  was  killed  in  the  battle  of 
Lake  Erie,  Sept.  loth,  1813. 

FISH.— Point,  George  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  "derives  its  name  from 
being  the  place  where  the  fishermen  of  Killarney  formerly  deposited 
their  fish  refuse." 

FISH  CREEK.— Point,  Rons  I.,  Sudbury  ;  after  the  action  of 
Fish  Creek,  Riel  rebellion,  1885. 

FISHER.— Bay  and  shoal,  St.  Joseph  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  a 
farmer,  who  lived  on  the  shore  of  the  bay. 


34  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

FISHER.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Hon. 
Sidney  Fisher,  Minister  of  Agriculture,  1896-1911. 

FISHERMAN.— Gut,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  so  called  be- 
cause* frequented  by  fishermen. 

ttFISHERMAN.— Point,  Simcoe. 

*FISHERMAN.< — Shoal,  Simcoe  ;  name  obsolete  \  named  by 
Bayfield. 

FISHERY.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  descriptive. 

ttFlSHERY.— Island,   Parry  Sound. 

tfFISHERY  ISLAND.— Cove,  Manitoulin. 

FISHERY.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  it  "affords  shelter  to  boats 
employed  in  attending  the  pound  nets  in  the  locality." 

FISK. — Reef,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  captain  of  a 
lake  vessel. 

FITZGERALD.— Bay,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  resident  of  Parry 
Sound. 

*FITZWILLIAM.  —Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Captain  (later, 
Vice-Admiral)  William  Fitzwilliam  Owen  (1774-1857)  ;  died  at  St. 
John,  N.B.  Lieut.  Bayfield  was  his  assistant  in  the  survey  of  Lake 
Ontario,  1816-17. 

ft  FITZWILLIAM.  —Channel,  Manitoulin. 

FIVE-FATHOM.— (Patch,  Manitowaning  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  de- 
scriptive— "5%  fathoms  on  it." 

FIVE-MILE.— Bay,  Parry  Sound  ;  because  supposed  to  be  five 
miles  long. 

FLAT. — Island,    Goat  Channel,  Sudbury  ;     descriptive  ;    numer- 
ous other  features  bear  this  name. 
ttFLAT  ROCK.— Bank,  Simcoe. 

FLEMING.— Bank,  Algoma  ;  after  Sir  Sandford  Fleming,  Otta- 
wa, eminent  Canadian  civil  engineer. 

tfFLEMING.— Rock,    Nottawasaga  Bay,  Grey. 

FLINT.— Rocks,  Aird  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late  Senator  Billa 
Flint,  Belleville. 

FLOOD.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late  Nicho- 
las Flood  Davin,  M.P.  for  West  Assiniboia. 

FLOWER-POT. — Island,  Bruce  ;  "derives  its  name  from  two 
remarkable  isolated  rocks  close  to  the  east  shore,  both  being  much 
eroded  at  the  bases,  with  a  few  small  trees  on  their  summits, 
much  resemble  gigantic  flower  pots." 

FLUMMERFELT.  —Patch,  Bruce  ;  after  a  fireman  in  steamer 
Bayfield. 

FORBES.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  John  Colin 
Forbes,  artist^  Toronto, 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  35 

FOREMAN.— Islands,  Muskoka  ;  after  Felix  Foreman,  Fleet-En- 
gineer in  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camperdown, 
1893- 

FOR  SHAW.— Island,  St  Joseph  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  late  Prof. 
Forshaw  Day,  sometime  Professor  of  Drawing  at  the  Royal  Mili- 
tary College,  Kingston. 

FORT. — Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  remains  of  a  fort  in  the 
locality. 

FORTIN.—  Rocks,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Pierre  Fortin, 
M.P.  for  Gaspe,  1867-74  and  1878-87  ;  Senator,  1887  ;  d.  1888. 

FOSTER.— Bank,  Sudbury  ;  after  Hon.  George  Eulas  Foster, 
Minister  of  Marine  and  Fisheries,  1885-88  ;  Minister  of  Finance, 
1888-96  ;  Minister  of  Trade  and  Commerce  since  1911. 

tfFOSTER.— Rock,   Parry  Sound. 

FOUL. — Bight,    Algoma  ;   descriptive. 

FOURNIER.— Islands,  Serpent  Harbour,  Algoma  ;  after  Hon. 
Telesphore  Fournier,  Minister  of  Inland  Revenue,  1873-74  ;  Minister 
of  Justice,  1874-75  ;  Postmaster-General,  1875  ;  Judge,  Supreme 
Court,  1875-95  ;  d.  1896. 

*FOX. — Islands,  Algoma  ;  probably  because  numerous  foxes 
found  on  these  islands. 

FRANCES.— Point,  Par  y  Sound  ;  after  steamer  Frances 
Smith,  which  named  by  first  owner  after  his  wife. 

tfFRANCES  SMITH.— Shoal,  Key  Harbour,  Parry  Sound. 

FRANCIS. — Brook,  Manitowaning  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a 
doctor,  Manitowaning. 

*FRANCIS.—  Point,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  deriva- 
tion unknown. 

FRANK.— Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Frank 
Marks,  Marks ville. 

FRANK.— Ledge,  Smith  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Frank  McGre- 
gor, a  son  of  sailing  master  of  the  Bayfield. 

*FRANKLIN.—  Inlet,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Sir  John  Franklin, 
Captain,  R.N.  ;  famous  Arctic  explorer  ;  in  1825,  passed  through 
Georgian  Bay  on  his  way  to  the  Arctic  and  met  Bayfield  ;  name 
practically  obsolete  ;  usually  called  Shawanaga  Bay. 

*FRASER.—  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  derivation 
unknown. 

tfFRASER  BAY.-^Hill,  Manitoulin. 

FRASER-.— Rocks,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Hon.  C.  F. 
Fraser,  Provincial  Secretary  1873-74  ;  Commissioner  of  Public 
Works,  1874-94. 

FRECHETTE.— Bay  and  island,  Manitoulin,  and  island,  North 
Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late  Louis  Honore  Frechette,  French- 
Canadian  poet. 


36  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

FREDERIC.— Inlet,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Provincial  Lieut. 
Chas.  Frederic  Rolette  (1783-1831)  ;  Centered  Royal  Navy  ;  was  at 
the  battle  of  the  Nile  (wounded)  and  Trafalgar  ;  ist  Lieutenant  in 
the  Hunter,  1812  ;  captured  the  packet  Cuyahoga,  3rd  July,  1812  ; 
was  at  Put-in  Bay,  taking  command  of  the  Lady  Prevost  when  comr- 
mander  was  wounded  ;  a  prisoner  of  war  and  confined  as  a  hostage 
in  Frankfort  penitentiary." 

FREER.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  Capt.  H.  C.  Freer, 
South  Staffordshire  Regiment  ;  graduate  of  Royal  Military  Col- 
lege, 1880. 

FREMLIN.—  Island  and  reef,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  af- 
ter a  Marksville  lumber  merchant. 

FRENCH. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  so  called  because 
a  number  of  islands  in  vicinity  were  named  after  early  French  ex- 
plorers and  missionaries. 

FRENCH.— River,  Parry  Sound  ;  the  waterway  by  which  the 
early  French  traders  came  from  eastern  Canada  to  the  western 
country. 

FROST. — Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  clergyman  at  Sheguian- 
dah. 

GAFFNEY.— Island,  St.  Joseph  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  an  officer  of 
the  U.S.  engineers. 

GAHAN.— Rock,    Muskoka  ;  after  Dr.  Gahan,  Penetanguishenc. 

GALBRAITH.— Point, Aird  I.,  Algoma;  after  Dr.  John  Gal- 
braith,  Dean  of  the  Faculty  of  Applied  Science,  University  of  Tor- 
onto. 

G ALT. —Island,  Sudbury;  after  the  late  Sir  A.  T.  Gait, 
G.C.M.G.  (1817-1893),  Minister  of  Finance,  1867  ;  High  Commis- 
sioner for  Canada  in  the  United  Kingdom,  1880-83. 

GAMON.— Rock,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Simcoe  ;  after  a  lawyer  of 
Collingwood. 

GARDEN.— Island,  Goat  Channel,  Sudbury  ;  named  by  con- 
trast, being  a  barren,  limestone  island. 

GARDEN. — Bay,  Algoma  ;  from  Garden  Rivei,  which  from  a 
cultivated  or  cleared  spot  at  the  mouth. 

GARIBALDI.—  Island,  Serpent  Harbour,  Algoma  ;  after  a  trad- 
ing vessel. 

GARRISON.— Point,    Simcoe  ;  where  the  first  fort  was  built. 

*GAT.—  Point,  Cove  I.,  Bruce  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  derivation 
unknown. 

ttGAT    POINT.-Reef,  Cove  I.,  Bruce. 

GAUGE.— Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  "The  name  was  given  to  this 
small  cluster  on  account  of  a  beacon  fastened  to  the  eastern  islet  to 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  37 

indicate  to  the  Midland  and  Parry  Sound  steamer  the  depth  of  wa- 
ter in  South  Channel." 

GATJTHIER.—  Point,    Mamtoulin  ;    alter    a    resident. 

GAVAZZI.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Rev.  Father 
Gavazzi,  whose  preaching  in  Montreal  led  to  riots  in  1854. 

GAVILLER.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  Church  of  Eng- 
land clergyman,  Rev.  Hans  Gaviller. 

GEORGE. — Rock,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Simcoe  ;  after  George 
Moberly,  Collingwood. 

*GEORGE.—  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  King  George  IV,  reign- 
ing monarch  at  date  of  Bayfield's  survey. 

tt^EORGE.— Rocks,   Manitoulin. 

tt*GEORGE.—  I/ake,   St.  Mary  River,  Algoma. 

tt*GEORGIAN.  —Bay,  Lake  Huron. 

GERALDINE.— Island,   Muskoka  ;  after  tug  Geraldine. 

GEREAUX. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  light-keeper  on 
the  island. 

GERMAIN.— Island,  Key  Harbour,  Parry  Sound;  after  a  launch 
owner,  Byng  Inlet. 

GERTRUDE.— Island,Manitoulin  ;;  after  a  daughter  of  Admiral 
Bayfield. 

GER VASE.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  one  of  the 
ships  in  Capt.  Kirke's  squadron  which  captured  Quebec,  1629  ;  the 
vessel  named  after  Capt.  Kirke's  father,  Gervase  Kirke. 

*GIANT'S  TOMB.— Island,  Simcoe  ;  "from  the  appearance  of 
the  highest  part,  as  seen  from  'The  Westerns,'  when,  usually,  the 
hill  appears  out  of  the  water,  and  resembles  a  huge  tomb." 

GIBBONS.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  retired  naval  officer, 
Little  Current. 

GIBRALTAR.— Cliff,  Manitoulin  ;  fancied  resemblance  to  the 
famous  peak. 

GIBSON. — Point,  Manitoulin,  and  reef,  Muskoka  ;  after  a 
draughtsman  at  Admiralty  in  1890. 

GIDLEY.— Point,  Simcoe  ;  after  the  owner. 

*GIG. — Point,  Cove  I.,  Bruce  ;  named  by  Bayfield,  probably  af- 
ter his  gig  (boat). 

GILEAD. — Rock,    Muskoka  ;  from  balm  of  Gilead  trees  on  rock. 

GILLESPIE.  — « Island,  Muskoka;  after  a  Mr.  Gillespie,  of 
Hamilton. 

GILLFORD.—  Rocks,  Georgian  Bay,  Muskoka  ;  after  Lord  Gill- 
ford,  Flag-Lieutenant  in  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the 
Camperdown,  June  23,  1893 

GILLMOR. — Point,  Frechette  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late  Arthur 
H.  Gillmor,  M.P.  for  Charlotte,  N.B.,  1874-96  ;  Senator,  1900. 


38  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

GISBORNE.— Point,  Croker  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late  Francis 
N.  Gisborne,  Superintendent,  Dominion  Telegraphs. 

GLACIS. — Island,  -Muskoka  ;  after  its  "steep,  bare,  western 
face." 

GL  ADMAN. —Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  resident  of  Parry 
Sound. 

GLADWYN. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  the  schooner  Gladwyn  as- 
sisted in  defence  of  Fort  Detroit,  1763  ;  the  fort  was  commanded 
by  Captain  Gladwyn. 

GLADYS. — Island,  Thunder  Bay  ;  after  a  member  of  an  Ottawa 
family. 

^GLOUCESTER.— Bay,  Simcoe  ;  after  H.R.H.  the  Princess 
Mary  (1776-1857),  fourth  daughter  of  George  III.  She  was  the  last 
surviving  of  the  fifteen  children  of  George  III.  Or,  after  her  hus>- 
band,  and  first  cousin,  H.R.H.  William  Frederick,  Duke  of  Glouces- 
ter and  Edinburgh.  Name  appears  on  Bouchette's  map,  1815,  but  is 
now  obsolete  ;  now,  Midland  Bay. 

^GLOUCESTER.— Point  Simcoe  ;  name  obsolete  ;  now  Sucker 
Creek  Point. 

*GLOVER.— Point,  Simcoe  ;  possibly  after  an  official  of  Pene- 
tanguishene  naval  station. 

GLYN. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  captain  of  H.M.S.  Van- 
guard, in  which  Parry  (q.v.)  served,  1808-09. 

GOALEN. — Island.  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  an  assistant 
surveyor  with  Capt.  Tooker  in  hydrographic  survey  of  Newfound- 
land. 

GODFREY.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  friend  cf 
Captain  Boulton. 

GO-HOME.— River,    Muskoka  ;   translation  of  the  Indian    name 

kewanenashing. 

tfOO-HOME.— Bay,   Muskoka. 

GOLD-HUNTER.— Rock,  Smith  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  schoon- 
er Gold-hunter,  stranded  near  here. 

GOLDWIN.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Prof.  Goldwin  Smith, 
" The m Grange,"  Toronto. 

GOOD  CHEER. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  a  descriptive  name  giv- 
en by  the  owner  of  the  island,  Chancellor  Boyd. 

GORDON. — Point,  Simcoe  ;  the  site  of  an  old  trading  post  es- 
tablished by  George  Gordon,  1825. 

GORDON.— Rocks,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Lieutenant  Andrew  R. 
Gordon,  R.N.,  in  command  of  Hudson  Bay  expedition,  1888. 

ttGORDON.—  Rock,  Sudbury. 

GORE.— Bay,  and  GORE  BAY,  town,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the 
steamboat  Gore  which  plied  between  Collingwood  and  Sault  Ste. 
Marie  in  the  "sixties"  ;  the  steamboat  named  after  Sir  Charles  S. 


PlvACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  B9 

Gore,  who  assisted  in  suppression  of  the  rebellion  of  1837-38.    For- 
merly called   Janet  Cove  and  named  by  Admiral  Bayfield. 

ffGORE. — Rock,    Simcoe  ;  the  Gore  struck  on  this  rock. 

GORREL- — Point,    Manitoulin  ;  after  a  farmer  of  Gore  Bay. 

GOURDEAU.— Patch,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Colonel  F.  F.  Gour- 
deau,  late  Deputy  Minister  of  Marine  and  Fisheries. 

GOW.— Point  and  shoal,  Strawberry  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a 
summer  resident  of  the  island. 

GOWLAND.— Point,   Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  doctor,  Parry  Sound. 

GRABURN.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  an  officer  of  the  De- 
partment of  Marine  and  Fisheries  ;  he  made  a  survey  of  French 
River. 

GR4CE.— Bank,  Muskoka  ;  after  the  tug  Grace. 

GRAND. — Bank,    Manitoulin  ;  descriptive. 

*GRANT.—  EAST,  MIDDLE  and  WEST,  islands,  North  Chan- 
nel, Algoma  ;  after  an  officer  of  the  gunboat  Confiance,  on  Lake 
Huron  in  1826.  Or,  after  Charles  •  Grant  (later,  Lord  Glenelg), 
Treasurer  of  the  Navy,  1827-28. 

GRANTHAM.  — iShoal,  Georgian  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the 
schooner  Grantham. 

GRAVEL.— Point,  St.  Joseph  I.,   Algoma;  characteristic. 

tfGRAVELLY.— Point  and  bay,  Bruce. 

GRAVEYARD.— Point,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  descrip- 
tive. 

*GRAVIER.— Point,  St.  Joseph  I.,  Algoma  ;  old  voyageur 
name  ;  now  translated  into  English  form.  See  Gravel  Point.  Ap- 
pears on  Bay  field's  chart. 

GRAY. — Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Major  Gray,  formerly  resi- 
dent engineer,  Public  Works  Department  of  Canada,  Toronto. 

GREEN. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  this  and  numerous  other  fea- 
tures so  named  after  the  green  timber  covering  them. 

GREENFIELD.  —Reef,  Bruce  ;  after  the  colour  of  the  water 
enclosed  by  the  reef. 

GREENWAY.  —Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Thomas 
Greenway  (1838-1908),  som  time  Premier  of  Manitoba. 

GRIEVE.— Rock,  Muskoka  ;  after  Arthur  C.  Grieve,  midship- 
man in  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camperdown  off 
Tripoli,  June  23rd,  1893. 

GRIFFIN.— Bank,  Man'toulin  ;  after  M.  J.  Griffin.  General 
Librarian,  Parliamentary  Library. 

^GRIFFITH.— Island,  Grey  ;  after  Vice-Admiral  Sir  Edward 
Griffith  Colpoys  (q.v.). 

GRIPER.— Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  one  of  Parry's  vessels  in 
his  expedition  in  search  of  the  Northwest  passage,  1819-20. 


40  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

*GRONDINE. — Point,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  the  voyageurs  af- 
ter  the  grinding  (grumbling)  sound  made  by  the  rocks  of  the  shore 
when  affected  by  the  waves. 

tfGRONDINE.  —Rock,  Manitoulin. 

GUANO. — Rock,  Key  Harbour,  Parry  Sound  ;  so-called  because 
much  resorted  to  by  gulls ,  etc. 

GUIyl/. — Rocks,  Parry  Sound  ;  this,  and  other  features,  so  call- 
ed because  much  frequented  by  gulls. 

GUIyNARE. — Point,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  steam- 
er Gulnare,  surveying  vessel,  Newfoundland.  The  first  Gulnare  was 
used  by  Bayfield  during  his  surveys  of  St.  I/awrence  River  and 
Gulf. 

*GUN. — Point,  Bruce  ;  named  by  Bayfield,  probably  to  corrir 
mermorate  the  loss  of  a  gun  or  similar  occurrence. 

GUNBOAT.— Shoal,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  its  position 
near  Minstrel  rock  which  named  after  a  British  gunboat. 

GUNDERSON.— Shoal,  Grey  ;  after  a  lake  captain. 

GUY. — Rock,     Parry   Sound  ;  after  a  son  of  Capt.  Boulton. 

G  WYNNE. — Bay,  Alg>oma  ;  after  John  Wellington  Gwynne,  Jus- 
tice, High  Cdurt  for  Ontario,  1868-79  ;  Judge,  Supreme  Court,  1879- 
1902. 

HAG  ARTY.— Islands,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Hon.  Sir 
John  Hawkins  Hagarty  (1816-1900),  Justice  of  the  High  Court  for 
Ontario,  Queen's  Bench  Div.  1862-68  ;  Chief  Justice  of  Common 
Pleas,  1868-78  ;  Chief  Justice,  Queen's  Bench,  1874-84  ;  Chief  Jus- 
tice for  Ontario,  1884-97  ;  knighted,  1897. 

HAGGART.— Point,  ^Parry  Sound  ;  after  late  Hon.  John  Hag- 
gart,  M.P.  ;  Postmaster-General,  1882-92  ;  Minister  of  Railways 
and  Canals,  1892-96. 

HA-HA.— Rock,   Muskoka  ;  after  the  tug  Ha-ha. 

HAIGHT.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  lawyer  of  Parry 
Sound. 

HAILSTONE.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  resident. 

HAIyCRO.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Chancellor  Boyd's 
yacht. 

HALFWAY. — Islands,  Waubuno  Channel,  Sudbury  ;  because  sit- 
uated about  half-way  through  the  channel. 

*HAIvFMOON. — Island,  Bruce  ;  descriptive  of  outline. 

tfHAIyFMOON.— Bank,  Bruce. 

HAIyKETT.— Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  J.  B.  Halkett,  chief 
clerk,  Department  of  Marine  and  Fisheries. 

HALJv. — Reef  and  rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  steam  barge. 

HAI/I/. — Shoal,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  one  of  the 
crew  of  the  Bayfield. 


PIvACE:NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  41 

HAMILTON. — Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Lord  George  Hamil- 
ton, First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1885-92. 

ttHAMILTON.—  Rock,  Serpent    Harbour,    Algoma. 

HAMPSHIRE.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  Hampshire,  an 
English  vessel,  sunk  by  d'Iberville  in  Hudson  Bay,  1697., 

*HANGCLIFF.—  Cape,  Parry  I.,  Parry  Sound  ;  named  by  Bay- 
field  ;  descriptive  of  appearance  ;  name  obsolete  ;  now  I/ion  Head. 

HANG-DOG.— Point  and  bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  "as  the  name  in- 
dicates is  a  broken-up  foul  point." 

HANKINSON.— Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Parry's  brother-in- 
law,  Rev.  R.  H.  Hankinson. 

HANNAH.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Mrs.  M.  G.  Poole,  sis- 
ter-in-law of  W.  J.  Stewart,  Chief  Hydrographer. 

tfH  ANN  AH. —Ground,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma. 

HANS. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  Church  of  England  cler- 
gyman, Rev.  Hans  Gaviller. 

HAPPY-GO-LUCKY.  ^-Island,  Muskoka  ;  so  named  by  the  own- 
er of  camp  on  island. 

HARBOTTLE.  —Islands  Alexander  Inlet,  Parry  Sound  ;  after 
late  Capt.  Harbottle,  Steamship  Inspector,  Toronto. 

HARBOUR. — Island,  Clapperton  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  descrip- 
tive name  applied  to  this  and  several  other  features  ^ 

HARD-HEAD.— Point,  Hope  Island  ;  from  the  boulders  (hard- 
heads) scattered  along  the  shore. 

HARDIE.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  late  chief  clerk,  Depart- 
ment of  Marine  and  Fisheries. 

tfHARDlE.— Rock,    Manitoulin. 

HAROLD. — Point,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  son  of  Capt.  Boulton, 
late  Hydrographer. 

ttHAROLD.—  Point,    Vidal  Island,  Manitoulin. 

HARRIETTE.  — (Point,  Algoma  ;  local  name. 

HARRIS. — Rock,  Muskoka  ;  after  a  man  who  was  lost  in  the 
Waubuno. 

HARRIS.— Bank,    Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  naval  surveyor. 

HARRISON.— Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  boatman  in  steam- 
er Bayfield. 

HARTNEY.— Cove,  Manitoulin  ;  after  E.  P.  Hartney,  chief 
clerk,  House  of  Commons. 

HARTY.— Patches,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Patrick  Harty,  King- 
ston, Inspector  of  Lights,  Department  of  Marine  and  Fisheries. 

HASLEYWOOD.— < Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  lawyer,  Char- 
lottetown  ;  a  friend  of  Capt.  Boulton. 


42  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY, 

HAT. — Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  descriptive  of 
outline  of  island. 

HATTIE.—  Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Miss 
Hattie  Richards,  Richards  Landing. 

HAW.KES.— Shoal,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a 
cousin  of  Mrs.  W.  J.  Stewart. 

HAWKINS.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Sir  John 
Hawkins  Hagarty  ;  see  Hagarty. 

*H  AY. —Island,  Bruce  ;  named  by  Bay  field,  probably  after  the 
private  secretary  to  Lord  Melville,  First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty. 

HAYSTACK. — Rock,     Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive  of  appearance. 

HAYTER. — Point,  Christian  Island,  Simcoe  ;  after  Hayter 
Reed,  Indian  Commissioner  1888-95  ;  Deputy  Superintendent-Gen- 
eral of  Indian  Affairs,  1893-97. 

HEAD. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  "supposed  by  some  to  take  its 
name  from  the  resemblance  of  the  north-east  island  of  the  three 
to  a  bald-headed  man." 

HEART. — Bank,    Parry  Sound  ;   descriptive  of  shape. 

HECLA, — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  one  of  Parry's  vessels  in 
his  Arctic  expeditions,  1819-20,  1821-23  and  1824-25. 

*HELEN. — Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Bay  field  (q.v.)  after  his 
only  sister,  Lady  Page  Turner. 

HELEN.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  aftei  Mrs.  Hurt, 
sister-in-law  of  W.  J.  Stewart. 

HENNEPIN.—  Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Father 
Henncpin  (1640-1701),  Recollet  missionary  and  explorer. 

HENRIETTA.  ^Point,  Franklin  Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after 
the  wife  of  H.  B.  Small,  Department  of  Agriculture,  Ottawa. 

*HENRY.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Admiral  Henry  W.  Bay- 
field  (q.v.) 

tfHENRY.— Patch,  Manitoulin. 

HENSLEY.— Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  Capt  C.  A.  Hens- 
ley  of  the  Royal  Dublin  Fusiliers  ;  graduate  of  the  Royal  Military 
College. 

*HENVEY.  —Inlet  ;  named  by  Bayfield  after  Lieut.  William 
Henvy  (or  Henvey),  R.N.,  who,  in  October,  1815,  was  serving  in 
the  St.  Lawrence. 

HERBERT.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Major-Gen- 
eral Ivor  John  Caradoc  Herbert,  commanded  Canadian  Militia, 
1890-95. 

HERCULES.— Bank,   Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  lake  vessel. 

HERMAN.— Point,  Serpent  Harbour,  Algoma  ;  after  Herman 
H.  Cook,  M.P.  (q.v.). 

HERON.— Patch,    Manitoulin  ;  after  a  gunboat  on  Great  Lakes. 

HERVEY.— Rock,   Musk  oka  ;     after   Frederick    W.    F.     Herve>v 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  43 

Lieutenant  in  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camperdown, 
June   23rd,    1893. 

HESSON. — Point,  Innes  Island,  Algoma  ;  after  S.  R.  Hesson, 
M.P.  for  North  Perth,  1878-91. 

HEWETT.— Shoal,  Sudbury  ;  after  late  General  Hewett,  Com- 
mandant, Royal  Military  College,  Kingston. 

*HEYWOOD.—  Island  and  sound,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Bay- 
field  ;  derivation  unknown. 

ttHEYWOOD.— Rocks,   Manitoulin. 

HIAWATHA.— Bank,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Grey  ;  after  the  tug 
Hiawatha. 

HIESORDT. — Rocks,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  man- 
ager of  the  Spanish  River  mill. 

HIGH. — Beach,  Badgley  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  characteristic  ; 
name  also  applied  to  several  other  features. 

HILLIER.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Dr.  Caleb  Hillier  Parry, 
father  of  the  Arctic  explorer,  W.  E.  Parry. 

HINCKS.— Island  ;  after  Sir  Francis  Hincks  (1807-1885),  Pre- 
mier of  Canada,  1851-54. 

HOAR.— Point,  Hope  Island,  Simcoe  ;  after  the  lightkeeper  of 
Hope  Island  light. 

HOFFMANN.— Bay,  Algoma  ;  after  Dr.  George  C.  Hoffmann, 
late  Chemist,  Geological  Survey. 

HOLE-IN-THE-WALL.— Channel,  Parry  Sound  ;  "a  remarkable 
cleft  separating  Huckleberry  and  Wall  Islands.  The  narrowest  place 
is  in  feet  wide." 

HOLMES.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Capt. 
Holmes  of  C.  G.  S.  Cruiser. 

*HONORA.—  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Bayfield  :  derivation 
unknown. 

tfHONORA.— Point,  Manitoulin. 

HOOD. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  boatman  in 
surveying  steamtr  Bayfield. 

HOOD.— Patch,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Admiral  Sir  Arthur  Wil- 
liam Acland  Hood,  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1885. 

tfHOOD.— Reef,    Parry   Sound. 

HOOPER.— Island,  Georgian  Bay,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  William 
H.  Hooper,  purser  on  Parry's  three  Arctic  voyages. 

*HOPE.—  Bay,  Bruce  ;  named  by  Bayfield  after  Admiral  Sir 
Wm.  Johnston  Hope  ;  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1807  et  seq ;  d.  1831. 

*HOPE. — Island,  Simcoe ;  probably  same  as  preceding  ;  possibly 
after  Col.  Henry  Hope,  Member  of  Legislative  Council,  Quebec  ; 
Administrator,  1785,  pending  the  return  of  Lord  Dorchester  from 
Great  Britain  ;  died  1789., 


44  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

HOPPNER.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Lieutenant  Henry  P. 
Hoppner,  Commander  of  the  Fury  in  Parry's  third  Arctic  voyage, 
1824-25., 

HORACE.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  son  of  Admiral  Bay- 
field. 

HORNE. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  boatman  in 
surveying  steamier  Bayfieid. 

*HORSBURG.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  James  Horsburg 
(1762-1836),  hydrographer  to  the  East  India  Company  author  of 
the  celebrated  "Directions  for  sailing  to  and  from  the  East  In- 
dies, etc.,"  the  basis  of  the  present  East  India  Directory. 

tfHORSBURG.— Hill,   Manitoulin. 

HORSE. — Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  shipwrecked  horse  that 
remained  on  the  island  for  several  years. 

ttHORSE.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma. 

HORSLEY.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  friend  of  Captain 
Boulton. 

HOSKIN. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  said  to  be  after  a 
naval  surveyor.  Possibly  should  be  Hoskins,  after  Vice-Adtniral  Sir 
Anthony  H.  Hoskins,  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1880-82  and  1885-88. 

HOSPITAL.— Point,  Serpent  Harbour,  Algoma  ;  "so  called 
from  its  being  the  temporary  site  of  a  camp  for  the  isolation  of  ty- 
phoid fever  patients  during  an  outbreak  in  the  season  of  1887." 

HOTHAM.r- Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Sir  Chas. 
Fred.  Hotham,  G.C.B.,  G.C.V.O.,  Admiral  of  the  Fleet,  Lord  of 
the  Admiralty. 

HOUGHT ON.— Bay  and  rocks,  Algoma  ;  after  the  tug  Hough- 
ton. 

HOWLAND.— Rocks,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Williami  H. 
Howland,  Mayor  of  Toronto,  1886. 

HUDGEN.— Rock,     Parry    Sound  ;    after    a    fisherman. 

HUMBUG.— Point,  St.  Joseph  Island,  Algoma  ;  after  a  back 
current  that  holds  boats  when  in  light  wind  or  calm. 

HUNGERFORD.— Point  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  lake  trading  ves- 
sel. 

HUNT.— Point,  Cloche  Island,  Sudbury  ;  after  the  late"  Dr.  T. 
S terry  Hunt,  Geological  Survey. 

HUNTLY.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  com- 
mander of  a  British  gunboat  on  the  lakes. 

*HURD.— Cape,  Bruce;  after  Capt.  Thomas  Hurd  (1757-1823), 
appointed  hydrographer  to  the  Admiralty,  1808. 

tt HURD. —Channel,  Bruce. 

HURT.— Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  brother- 
in-law  of  W.  J.  Stewart. 

IMPERIAL.— Bank,   Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  steamer  Imperial. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  45 

INDIAN.— Bight,  Manitoulin  ;  this  and  other  features  so  named 
because  Indians  live  on  the  shores  or  frequent  them. 

ftlNDIAN.— Big-lit,    Algoma. 

tflNDI AN.—  Channel,  Clapperton  and  Vankoughnet  Islands, 
Manitoulin. 

tt*INDIAN.—  Harbour,  Georgian  Bay,  Muskoka. 

tflNDIAN. — Island,   Serpent  Harbour,  Algoma. 

tt*INDIAN. — Islands,    Parry  Sound  ;  name  obsolete. 

INDIAN  BELLE.—  Rock,  Simcoe  ;  after  the  steamer  Indian 
Belle. 

INDIAN    JOHN.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  a  pilot,  Spanish  River. 

INDIAN  HARBOUR.— Point  and  reef,  Fitzwilliam  Island,  Mani- 
toulin ;  "much  resorted  to  by  the  Manitoulin  Indians  during  the 
trolling  season  for  trout  in  the  autumn." 

*INNES.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  named  by  Bay- 
field  ;  derivation  unknown. 

IREI/AND. — Point,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  resident  of  Parry 
Sound. 

IRONSIDES.— Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  an  officer  of  the  Indian 
Department,  at  Manitowaning. 

ttlRONSIDES.— Reef,    North  Channel,  Algoma. 

IRWIN.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Lieut. -Colonel 
de  la  C.  Irwin,  C.M.G.  ;  retired  Colonel,  R.C.A.  ;  was  Inspector  vof 
Artillery,  1882-98. 

ISAAC. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  steamer 
Isaac  May. 

ISABEL.— Rock,    Algoma  ;  after  Isabel  Grant,  Ottawa, 

ISAIAH. — Rock,   Parry  Sound  ;  after  an  Indian. 

*ISTHMUS. — Bay,  Bruce  ;  descriptive  ;  name  obsolete  ;  now, 
Whip-poor-Will  Bay. 

IVOR.— Rocks,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  Major-General  Ivor 
John  Caradoc  Herbert,  commanded  Canadian  Militia,  1890-95. 

JACKMAN. — Rock,  Killarney  Harbour,  Manitotflin  ;  after  a 
merchant  at  Killarney. 

JACKSON.— Island,  Ncrth  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Inspec- 
tor of  Fisheries,  Georgian  Bay. 

*  JACKSON. —Cove,  Bruce  ;  probably  after  Lieutenant  Jack- 
son, in  command  of  the  Heron,  1816. 

ft  JACKSON.—  Shoal,  Bruce. 

JACQUES.— Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  the  captain  of  the  steam- 
er Manitou. 

JAGGED.— Island,  Western  Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive. 

*JAMES.—  Bay,    Manitoulin  ;  after  James  Horsburg  (q.v.). 


46  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

*JAMES. — Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Commodore  Sir  James 
Lucas  Yeo  (q.v.). 

tfJAMES   ISLAND.— Reef,  Manitoulin. 

JAMES. — Rock,    Parry  Sound  ;     after  an  Indian. 

JAMES  FOOTE.— Patch,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Capt.  James 
Footc  of  the  steamer  Athabasca. 

JAMIESON.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  naval 
surveyor. 

JANE. — Island,     Parry  Sound  ;  after  schooner  Jane  McLeod. 

JANE.— Rock,    Parry   Sound  ;   after  Capt.  McGregor's  wife. 

*  JANET. — Cove,     Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Bay  field,  probably  af- 
ter a  friend  ;  derivation  unknown  ;  now  called  'Gore  Bay1   (q*v.) 

tt*JANET.—  Head,  Manitoulin. 

JENKINS. — Point,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  resident  of  Parry 
Sound. 

JENKINS.— Rock,  Sudbury  ;  after  S.  V.  Jenkins,  sometime 
Secretary  to  Hon.  George  E.  Foster,  Minister  of  Marine  and  Fisher- 
ies. 

JENNIE.— Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Miss 
Jennie  Marks,  Bruce  Mines. 

JERMYTtf. — Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel  ;  after  an  Indian  agent. 

JESSIE. — Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Miss  Jessie  Grant,  Otta- 
wa. 

JOE  DOLLAR.—  Bay,  Algoma  ;  after  a  citizen  of  Bruce  Mines. 

*JOHN. — Island,  Algoma  ;  named  by  Captain  Bayfield  (q.v.) 
after  his  father. 

ft  JOHN.— Harbour,    John  I.,  Algoma. 

JOHN. — Ledge,  Manitoulin  ;  after  John  McNeil,  coxswain  in 
surveying  steamer  Bayfield. 

JOHNSON. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  George  Johnson,  late 
Dominion  statistician. 

JOIylETTE.—  Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Louis  Jol- 
liet  (1645-1700),  French  explorer. 

JOLY. — Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Lieut. -Col. 
Alain  Joly  de  Lotbiniere,  C.S.I.,  C.I.E.  ;  graduated  from  the  Royal 
Military  College,  1883. 

*  JONES. — Bay,    Simcoe  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  possibly  after    an 
officer  of  Penetanguishene  naval    station  ;     name     obsolete  ;      now 
Sturgeon  Bay. 

JONES.— Bluff,   Bruce  ;  after  the  Wiarton  tug  J.  H.  Jones. 
JONES. — Island,   Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  former  resident  of    Bee- 
ton,   Ont. 

JONES. — Point,  Fox  Island,  Algoma  ;  after  Charles  J.  Jones, 
Assistant  Governor-General's  Secretary. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  47 

JOSEPHINE.— Rocks,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  daughter  of  Capt. 
McGregor,  sailing  master  of  steamer  Bayfield. 

JUBILEE. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  named  in  1887,  the  year  of 
the  late  Queen  Victoria's  Jubilee. 

tt^UBILEE.— Shoal,   Manitoulin. 

JUDD.— Bank,  Muskoka ;  after  a  sister  of  W.  J.  Stewart, 
Chief  Hydrographer. 

JUKES. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  resident  of  Parry 
Sound. 

*JULIA. — Bay  and  point,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Bayfield  (q. 
v.)  after,  probably,  Julia,  eldest  daughter  of  late  Mr.  Stevenson 
of  Quebec.  The  latter  "was  an  intimate  friend  of  the  Admiral's 
and  for  many  years  supplied  the  Gulnare."  The  schooner  Julia  was 
used  by  Bayfield  in  the  survey  of  Lake  Superior. 

*  JULIET. — Cove,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  derivation 
unknown. 

KALULAH. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  lake,  ves- 
sel. 

KANGAROO.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma;  after  a  lake  ves- 
sel, 

KAULBACH.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late 
C.  E.  Kaulbach,  M.P.  for  Lunenburg,  1878-82,  1883-87  and  1891- 
1904.  i 

KEATING.— Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  a  friend  of  Capt.  Boulton, 
a  resident  of  Penetanguishene. 

KEEFER.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  T.  C.  Keefer,  Ottawa, 
prominent  Canadian  civil  engineer. 

KEEGAN. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  boatman  in  steamer 
Bayfield. 

KENNEDY.— Bank,   Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  fisherman. 

KENNY. — Point  and  shoal,  Innes  Island,  Algoma  ;  after 
Thomas  Edward  Kenny,  M.P.  for  Halifax,  1887-96. 

KENSINGTON.— Point,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after 
Col.  Kensington,  late  Professor  of  Mathematics,  Royal  Military 
College,  Kingston. 

KERBY.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Forbes 
M.  Kerby,  C.E.  ;  graduated  from  Royal  Military  College,  1883  ; 
now  residing  in  Grand  Forks,  B.C. 

KERLEY.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a 
Church  of  England  clergyman. 

KERR.— Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  Mark  E.  F.  Kerr,  Lieutenant 
in  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camperdown,  June  23rd, 
1893. 

*KEY.—  Inlet, .  Parry  Sound  ;  so  named  by  Bayfield,  because  it 
is  key-shaped. 


48  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

KEYSTONE.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive. 

KIDD. — Bay  and  point.  White  Cloud  Island,  Grey  ;  "after  the 
owner  of  sawmill  here." 

KILCOURSIE.— Bay,  Piarry  Sound  ;  after  Viscount  Kilcoursie, 
Grenadier  Guards,  A.D.C.  to  Lord  Stanley,  Governor-General  of 
Canada,  1888-93. 

KILLALY.— Point,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  H.  H. 
Killaly,  from  1875  to  1892  employed  in  the  construction  and  en- 
largement of  the  St.  Lawrence  canals. 

KILL ARNEYw— Village,  bay  and  peak,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Kil- 
larney,  Ireland. 

KILTv-BEAR. — Point,  Parry  Sound  ;  probably  commemorated 
an  encounter  with  a  bear. 

KINDERSLEY.— Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  Captain  Kindersley, 
A.D.C.  to  Lord  Aberdeen,  Governor-General,  1893-98. 

KING. — Point,  Muskoka  ;  descriptive  of  commanding  position. 

tfKING.— Bay,    Muskoka. 

KING    WILLIAM.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  King  William  IV. 

KIRKE.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Sir  David 
Kirke,  who,  in  1629,  captured  Quebec  ;  received  a  grant  of  New- 
foundland, 1637  ;  died  1655. 

KIRKPATRICK.— Island,  Sudbury  ;  after  the  late  Hon.  Sir 
George  Airey  Kirkpatrick  (1841-99),  Speaker,  House  of  Com- 
mons, 1883-87  ;  Lieut. -Governor  of  Ontario,  1892-97  ;  K.C.M.G., 
1897- 

KLOTZ1.— Island.  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Dr.  Otto  J. 
Klotz,  LL.D.,  Asst.  Chief  Astronomer,  Department  of  the  Interi'or. 

KNIGHT.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  Staff-Commander  Knight, 
R.N.  (retired),  Collingwood. 

tfKNIGHT.— Rock. 

KNIGHT. — Shoal,    Parry    Sound  ;  after  a  fisherman. 

KNIGHTSLEIGH.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  name  given  by 
owner. 

KOKANONGI VI.— Island  and  shingle,  Manitoulin  ;  Indian 
name  of  a  small  fish. 

LAB  ATT. — Island,  Simcoe  ;  after  a  prominent  citizen  of  Hamil- 
ton, Ont. 

LABELLE.— Reef,  North  Channel,  Algoma,  Ont.  ;  probably  af- 
ter Lieut. -Col.  A  E.  Labelle,  commanded  the  65th  Rifles  during 
Riel  rebellion,  1885. 

LA  CLOCHE.— See  Cloche 

LAFFERTY  HOUSE.— Rock,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Simcoe,  Ont.; 
after  a  fisherman. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  49 

LA  FRANCE.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma,  Ont.  ;  after  a 
lake  captain. 

LAIRD. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  Hon.  David  Laird,  Min- 
ister of  th'e  Interior,  1873-76  ;  Lieut. -Governor  of  the  Northwest 
Territories,  1876-81. 

LALLY.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Collector  of  Customs,  Al- 
goma. 

LAM ANDIN.— Point,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  light-keeper,  Byng 
Inlet. 

LAMBE.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Law- 
rence M.  Lambe,  Invertebrate  Palaeontologist,  Geological  Survey  ; 
graduate,  Royal  Military  College,  1883. 

L AMOR ANDIERE.— Bay  and  strait,  Sudbury  ;  after  an  Indian 
trader  who  resided  there  about  1825. 

LAMORANDIERE.— Bank,  Bruce  ;  after  an  Indian  residing  at 
McGregor  Harbour. 

LAMPEY. — Bankv  Sudbury  ;  after  a  draughtsman  in  Depart- 
ment of  Marine  and  Fisheries. 

ffLAMPEY.— Island,    Parry  Sound. 

tflvAMPEV.— Rock,    North  Channel,  Sudbury. 

LANDERKIN.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Dr., 
George  Landerkin  (1839-1903),  M.P.  for  South  Grey,  1872-78  and 
1882-1900  ;  Senator,  1901. 

LANDRY.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  Hon.  A.  C.  P.  R.  Landry, 
M.P.  for  Montmagny,  1878-87  ;  Senator,  1892. 

LANGKVIN.— Rock,  Strawberry  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Sir 
Hector  L.  Langevin,  Secretary  of  State,  1867-69  ;  Minister  of  Public 
Works,  1869-73  and  1879-91  ;  Postmaster-General,  1878-79. 

LANSDOWNE.— Channel,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Sir  Henry  Charles 
(Fitzmaurice),  5th  Marquis  of  Lansdowne  ;  Governor-General  of 
Canada,  1883-88  ;  Governor-General  of  India,  1888-94. 

tflvANSDOWNE.— Rock,  Algoma. 

LAPTHORN.—  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Dr.  A.  Lapthorn 
Smith,  Montreal,  son  of  late  William  Smith,  Deputy  Minister  of 
Marine  and  Fisheries. 

LA  SALLE.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Robert 
Cayelier,  Sieur  de  la  Salle  (1643-87)  ;  explored  the  Mississippi  to 
its  mouth,  1682. 

LASH.— Island,  Key  Harbour,  Parry  Sound  ;  aftei  Z.  A.  Lash, 
K.C.,  Toronto,  Senior  Counsel,  Canadian  Northern  Railway. 

LASHER.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Mrs. 
W.  J.  Stewart,  nee  Lasher. 

LAUDER.— Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  tfie  late  Archdeacon 
J.  S.  Lauder,  Ottawa. 

LAURIER.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Rt. 
Hon.  Sir  Wilfrid  Laurier,  Premier  of  Canada,  1896-1911. 


50  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

LAWRENCE,—  Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Capt.  James  Law- 
rence, in  command  of  the  U.  S.  S.  Chesapeake,  captured  by  H.  M. 
S.  Shannon,  June  I,  1813. 

LAWSON.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  light-keeper  at  Red 
Rock  lighthouse,  Parry  Sound,  1890. 

LEFROY.— Island,  French  River,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  General 
Sir  John  Henry  Lefroy  (1817-90),  an  English  soldier,  administrator 
and  a  man  of  science,  was  occupied  in  taking  magnetic  observa- 
tions at  St.  Helena  1840-1842  ;  transferred  to  the  Observatory, 
Toronto,  1842. 

LEHAYE.— Point  and  rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  hotclkeeper, 
Killarney. 

LEO. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  steward  in  the 
surveying  steamer  Bayfield. 

LEONARD.— Island,   Parry  Sound  ;  after  owner. 

LEONARD.— Reef,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Major  R. 
\V.  Leonard,  Chairman,  National  Transcontinental  Ry.,  graduate  of 
Royal  Military  College,  1883. 

LE  SUEUR.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Dr.  W.  D. 
Lc  Sueur,  late  Secretary,  Post  Office  Department. 

LETT. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Mrs.  Lett, 
widow  of  a  clergyman,  Collingwood. 

LEWIN.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Hon.  James  D.  Lewin,  St. 
John,  N.B.,  Senator,  1876  ;  died  1900. 

LIDDON.— Point,  Parry  I.,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Lieut.  Matthew 
Liddon,  who  commanded  the  Griper  in  Parry's  Arctic  voyage,  1819- 
1820. 

LIMESTONE.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  "composed  of  rock  of  this 
nature." 

LINTER.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  chief 
engineer  in  surveying  steamer  Bayfield,  1886. 

ft  LINTER.— Rocks,   Manitoulin. 

LION. — Head,    Bruce  ;    descriptive  of  appearance. 

tflvION  HEAD  and  LION  RUMP.— Hills,   Sudbury. 

LISGAR.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Sir  John  Young,  Baron 
Lisgar,  Governor-General  of  Canada,  1869-72. 

LISTER. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Justice  Fred- 
erick Lister,  Sarnia  }  M.P.  for  West  Lambton,  1882-98., 

LITTLE  DETROIT.— Algoma  ;  the  strait  (Fr.  detroit)  be- 
tween Craftsman  Point  and  Aird  Island. 

LLOYD. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  probably  after  Rev.  G.  E. 
Lloyd,  chaplain  to  the  Queen's  Own  Regiment  during  Riel  rebellion, 

1885. 

LOADING.— Cove.     French  River,  Parry  Sound  ;  "from  its    be- 
ing a  convenient  place    for  the  large  vessels  to  take  in  saw  logs." 
LOAF.— Rock,  Bruce,  and  rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  51 

LOCKERBIE.— Rock,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Simcoe  ;  after  har- 
bourmaster at  Collingwood. 

LOGAN.— Bay  and  island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  Sir  Wil- 
liam E.  Logan,  famous  Canadian  geologist  ;  director  of  the  Geolo- 
gical Survey  of  Canada,  1841-69. 

LONE.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive  of  position  with  refer- 
ence to  other  islands. 

ftLONELY.— Bay,  Manitoulin. 
tt*IvONELY.—  Island,  Manitoulin. 

LONGUISSA.—  Point  and  bay,  Muskoka  ;  name  given  by  Mr. 
Campbfell,  owner  of  the  point,  to  house  which  he  built  on  it. 

LOOKOUT. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  has  a  commanding  position 
over  approach  to  the  channel. 

LOR NE.— Rock,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Marquis  of  Lome,  Gover- 
nor-General of  Canada,  18(78-83  ;  sue.  his  father  as  Duke  of.  Argyle, 
1900. 

LOTTIE  WOLF.— Rock,  Simcoe  ;  schooner  Lottie  Wolf  struck 
on  this  rock. 

LOUGHLIN. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  merch- 
ant, Algoma. 

LOUIS. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Sir  Louis  Dav- 
ies,  Judge,  Supreme  Court  of  Canada. 

LOUISA. — Island  and  rocks,  Parry  Sound,  and  island,  Sudbury; 
after  the  wife  of  Captain  Boulton. 

LUA'RD.— Rock,  Cloche  Island,  Sudbury  ;  after  Major-General 
R.  A.  Luard  ;  commanded  the  Militia  of  Canada,  1880-84. 

LUCAS. — Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Commodore  Sir  James 
Lucas  Yeo  (1782-1818). 

tflyUC  AS. —Channel,    Manitoulin. 

tflvUCAS  ISLAND.— Reef,  Manitoulin. 

LUMSDEN.— Rock.,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late 
Alexander  Lumsden,  M.P.,  lumberman,  Ottawa. 

LYNCH.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  clerk  in  Department  of 
Public  Works. 

LYON.—  Rocks,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  George  Francis  Lyon,  com^ 
mander  of  the  Hecla  in  Parry's  second  Arctic  voyage,  1821-23. 

LYON.— Cove,  St.  Joseph  Island,  and  island,  North  Channel, 
Algoma  ;  after  Robert  Adam  Lyon  (1830-1902),  sometime  Regis- 
trar of  Deeds,  Sault  Ste.  Marie. 

*McBE AN.  —Mountain,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  "an  Indian 
trader,  of  the  name  of  McBean,  has  been  here  many  years  and  has 
given  his  name  to  the  spot."  (Bigsby.) 

tfMcBEAN. — Channel  and  harbour,  Algoma. 


52  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

McBRlEN.—  Island/  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  owner  of  the 
island. 

McCAIvLUM.— Islands,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late 
Hon.  lyachlan  McCallum  ;  Senator,  1887  ;  d.  1903. 

MCCARTHY.— Point,  and  MCCARTHY  POINT,  ledge,  Fitzwii- 

liam  L,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  D'Alton  McCarthy,  O.C.  ;  M.P. 
for  Cardwell,    1874-78,   and  for  North  Simcoe,  1878-98. 

tfMcCARTHY.— Rock,  Nottawasaga  Bay,   Grey. 

McCIyELLAND. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  resident  of  Parry 
Sound. 

McCORMICK.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  boatman  in  the 
steamer  Bay  field. 

*McCOY. — Island  and  shoal,  Parry  Sound  ;  named  by  Bayfield, 
probably  after  J.  S.  McCoy,  R.N.,  who  in  October,  1815,  was  mas- 
ter in  H.M.S.  Champlain. 

tfMcCOY.— Shoal,    Parry    Sound. 

McCRACKEN.— Island,  Serpent  Harbour,  Algoma  ,  after  a  resi- 
dent of  Serpent  River. 

McCURRY. — Rocks,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  magistrate,  Parry 
Sound. 

McDONALD. — Shoal,    Manitoulin  ;  after  a  fisherman. 

McElvHINNEY. — Ground,  Bruce  ;  after  nautical  adviser,  De- 
partment of  Marine  and  Fisheries., 

McGLASHAN.— Patch,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  fisher- 
man at  Grant  Islands  in  1890. 

McGOWAN.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  lightkeeper  at  Red 
Rock  lighthoxise. 

McGREGOR.— Bank,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Capt.  A.  H.  McGregor, 
sailing  master  of  surveying  vessel  Bayfield. 

ttMcGREGOR.—  Channel,  Bruce. 

McGREGOR.— Harbour,  Bruce  ;  after  the  father  of  Capt.  Mc- 
Gregor, sailing  master  of  the  Bayfield. 

McGUIRE. — Rocks,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  •  after  a  boat- 
man in  surveying  steamer  Bayfield. 

McHUGH.— Rock.  Parry  Sound  ;  after  an  officer  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Marine  and  Fisheries. 

McINTOSH.— Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  fisherman. 

McKECHNIE.— Rock,  Parry  "Sound  ;  after  a  camper. 

McKENZIE.— Island,  Goat  Channel,  Sudbury  ;  after  a  light- 
keeper  at  Strawberry  Island  light. 

McKERREL.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  captain  of  a  lake 
vessel. 

McKINNON.— Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  boat- 
man in  surveying  steamer  Bayfield. 


PLACE-NAM£S  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  53 

McLAREN. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  owner  of  the 
island. 

McLEAN. — Shoal,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  boatman  in  steamer 
Bayfield. 

McLELAN.— Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  Hon.  A.  W.  Mc- 
Lelan,  Minister  ot  Marine  and  Fisheries,  1882-85. 

McLEOD. — Island,     Parry  Sound  ;  after  schooner  Jane  McLeod. 
ttMcLEOD.— Point,  Muskoka. 

McNAB. — Island  and  reef,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after 
John  McNab,  captain  of-  the  steamer  United  Empire  in  1889. 

tfMcNAB.— R!ocks,    Parry  Sound., 

McNEIL. — Ledge,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  coxswain  in  steamer 
Bayfield. 

McPHAIL. — Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  cap- 
tain of  the  tug  Kate  Marks. 

McQUADE. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  engineer  and  the 
purser  of  steamer  Manitou. 

McQUEE'N.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the 
chief  engineer,  in  1889,  of  he  United  Empire. 

McRAE.— Patch,  Sudbury,  and  patch,  North  Channel,  Manitou- 
lin ;  after  one  of  the  crew  of  the  surveying  steamer  Bayfield,  1884. 

McTAVISH.— Island,  Algoma  ;  after  D.  McTavish,  Hudson's 
Bay  Co.  factor  at  I/a  Cloche. 

MACK  AY. —Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  hotelkeeper,  little  Cur- 
rent. 

MACKEY.— Island,  Pa  ry  Sound  ;  after  Rev.  A.  W.  Mackey, 
Church  of  England  clergyman,  Ottawa. 

MACOUN.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  "  after  Prof.  John  Macoun, 
Chief  Botanist,  Geological  Survey  of  Canada. 

MACPHERSON.— Ledge,  Bedford  I.,  Sudbury;  after  late  Sir 
David  Macpherson  (1818-97),  Senator  from  1867  ;  Minister  of  the 
Interior,  1883-85. 

MACRAE.— Cove,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  mill '  owner,  Mildrum 
Bay. 

MAG ANETA WAN.— Ledges,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  Maganeta- 
wan  River — a  corruption  of  the  Indian  name,    'mafygawneltcwang, 
meaning  'a  long  channel.' 

MAGAZflNE.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  contains  the 
site  of  old  Canadian  Pacific  Ry.  powder  magazine. 

MAGAZINE.— Island,  Penetanguishene  Harbour,  Siincoe  ;  after 
"the  remains  of  an  old  naval  and  military  magazine." 


54  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

MAGKE.—  Point,  Amedroz  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Chas.  Magee, 
Ottawa,  capitalist  and  banker. 

MAGGIE.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  tug  Mag- 
gie. 

MAGGS. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma;  alter  Miss  Shep- 
herd, daughter  of  the  light-keeper. 

*M AIRS. —Point,  Simcoe  ;  possibly  after  an  official  of  Pene- 
tanguishene  naval  station  ;  name  obsolete  ;  now  Flat  Point. 

MAITLAND. — Bank,  Algoma  ;  after  a  merchant  of  Owen 
Sound. 

MALCOLM.—  Bluff,  Bruce  ;  after  a  son  of  Alex.  McNeill,  M.P. 
for  North  Bruce,  1882-1901. 

M  ALT  AS. — Island,  Goat  Channel,  Sudbury  ;  after  a  merchant 
of  Little  Current. 

MANITOBA. — Ledge,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  steamer  Manitoba, 
wrecked  here. 

MANITOTL—  Point,  Muskoka  ;  Indian  name  meaning  "Great 
Spirit." 

MANITOTL— Gap,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  lake  steamer  Mani- 
tou. 

MANITOULIN. — Island,  Manitoulin  ;  according  to  Indian  tra- 
dition ^it  is  the  dwelling  place  of  both  the  Good  Spirit,  gitchi-man- 
ito  and  of  matchi-manito,  the  Kvil  Spirit. 

ttMANlTOULIN. ^-District  and  bay. 

MANITOWANING.— Bay  and  harbour,  Manitoulin  ;  Indian 
name,  signifying  uhome  of  the  Great  Spirit." 

MANN.— Rock,  Algoma  ;  after  a  draughtsman  of  Marine  and 
Fisheries  Department. 

MANN.— Island,  Key  Harbour,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Sir  Donald 
D.  Mann,  Vice-President,  Canadian  Northern  Ry. 

MARY.— Island,   Aird  I.    Algoma  ;  after  the  tug  Mary. 

MARKS.— Bank,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  George 
Marks,  Bruce  Mines. 

*M ARKS.  —Point,  Simcoe  ;  possibly  after  an  official  of  Pene- 
tanguishene  naval  station. 

MARTIN.— Reef,  Manitoulin  ;  after  one  of  the  crew  of  survey- 
ing steamer  Bayfield,  1884  ;  lived  at  Mudge  Bay. 

MARTYR.— Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Charles  Martyr,  Sec- 
tary to  the  Admiral  commanding  at  Halifax,  1816,  and  an  inti- 
mate friend  of  Parry  (q.v.) 

MARY. — Point,    Algoma  ;   after  Mary  Moodie,  authoress. 

MARY  GRANT. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  secretary  to 
the  Deputy  Minister  of  Marine  and  Fisheries,  1890. 

MASSON.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  Hon.  L-  F.  R. 
Masson,  Lieutenant-Go vernor  of  Quebec,  1884-87. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  55 

MARY  WARD.— Ledges,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Grey  ;  schooner 
Mary  Ward  wrecked  here. 

*MATCHEDASH.—  Bay,  Simcoe  ;  name  applied  by  the  Indians 
to  the  shores  of  the  bay  ;  signifies  'marshy  land.'  Name  appears 
on  Bouchette's  map,  1815. 

MATHER.— Rock,  Muskoka  ;  after  the  late  John  Mather,  capi- 
talist, Ottawa. 

MATHESON. — Island,  Sudbury  ;  after  a  boatman  in  surveying 
steamer  Bay  field. 

tfMATHESON.—  Shoal,  Manitoulin. 

MAUD. — Island,     Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  tug  Maud. 

MAXWELL. —Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  the  steamer  E.  B.  Max- 
well. 

MAY. — Reef,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  steamer  Isaac 
May. 

MAYO. — Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Mayo  Nee- 
land,  graduate  of  Royal  Military  College,  1883. 

MAYNE.—  Point,  Christian  I.,  Simcoe  ;  after  Hon.  T.  Mayne 
Daly,  Minister  of  the  Interior,  1892-96. 

MAYNE. — Island,   Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  naval  officer. 

MAZEPPA. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  schoon- 
er Mazeppa. 

MEAFORD. — Shoal,  Parry  Sound  ;  fisherman  came  here  from 
Meaford,  Ont. 

MEAFORD. — Harbour,  Grey  ;  after  Meaford  town,  which  after 
Meaford  Hall,  seat,  Staffordshire,  England  ;  birthplace  of  Admiral 
Sir  John  Jervis  (1734-1823)  Earl  of  St.  Vincent.  Meaford  town  is 
in  St.  Vincent  township. 

*MELVILLE.— Sound,  Bruce  ;  after  Robert  Saunders  Dmndas, 
second  Viscount  Melville,  First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  1812-27. 

MELVIN.— Bight,  Strawberry  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  summer 
resident. 

MENOMINE- — Channel,  Parry  Sound  \mene,  good,  and  min,  a 
grain — the  Chippcwa  name  for  wild  rice. 

MERCER. — Rocks,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  boatman  in  steamer 
Bayfield. 

MERCIER.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  late  Hon.  Honore  Mer- 
cier,  Premier  of  Quebec,  1887-91. 

MEREDITH.— Island,  and  rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Sir  William 
R.  Meredith,  Chief  Justice  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  Ontario. 

MERIDA.— Shoal,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  lake 
vessel. 

METEOR.— Rock,  Serpent  Harbour,  Algoma  ;  after  the  steam- 
er Meteor. 


56  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

METHODIST. — Bay  and  point,  Sitncoe  ;  said  to  be  named  after 
a  camp-meeting  held  at  the  point  by  a  pioneer  Methodist  mission- 
ary in  early  days. 

MI  ALL. — Patch,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Edward  Miall,  Commission- 
er of  Inland  Revenue,  1883-1901. 

MICHATJD. — Point,  Simcoe  ;  after  a  French-Canadian  who  set- 
tled there,  1840. 

MICHEL- — Ground,  North  Channel,  Algorria  ;  after  Bernard 
Michel,  half-breed,  Killarney. 

MIDLAND. — Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  steamer  City  of 
Midland. 

MIDLAND. — Bay,  point  and  shoal,  Simcoe  ;  after  the  town  of 
Midland  which  last  after  the  Midland  Railway  ;  the  railway  so  nam- 
ed because  it  traversed  the  middle  of  Ontario  and  name  suggested 
by  the  Midland  Ry.,  Eng. 

MIDSHIPMAN.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Midshipman  Philip 
Edward  Collins,  assistant  to  Capt.  Bayfield. 

*MILDRUM. — Bay  and  point,  Manitoulin  ;  'Mildram  Point'  on 
Bayfield' s  chart  ;  derivation  unknown  ;  may  be  after  Meldrum, 
parish,  Aberdeenshire,  Scotland. 

MILFORD  HAVEN.— Harbour,  St.  Joseph  Island,  Algoma  ;  af- 
ter Milford  Haven,  village,  Wales. 

MILLER. — Point,  QManitoulin,  and  rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a 
resident  of  Parry  Sound. 

MILLIGAN. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  owner. 

MILLIGAN. — Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  boatman  in  the  Bay- 
field. 

MILO. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  boatman  in  steamer  Bay- 
field. 

MINER.— Rocks,    Parry  Sound  ;  one  of  crew  of  Bayfield. 

MINNICOG. — Bank,  Muskoka  ;  abbreviation  of  Minnicogana- 
shene  (q.v.) 

MINNICOGANASHENE.— Island,     Muskoka  ;      Indian    name, 
meaning  "point  of  many  blueberries."  ~  po^upo 

MINNIE.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  tug. 
tfMINNIE.— Rocks,    St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma. 

MINOS. — Bank,  Simcoe  ;  in  Greek  legend,  Minos  was  a  king  of 
Crete  ;  after  his  death,  a  judge  in  the  lower  world. 

MINSTREL.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Min- 
strel, a  British  gunboat  on  the  Great  Lakes. 

*MISSISSAGI.— River,  Algoma  ;  from  Chippewa  :  missi, 
'large,'  and  sag  or  sank,  'outlet'  (of  a  bay  or  river)  ;  the  word  sig- 
nifies "great  outlet"  and  is  applicable  to  any  river  estuary. 

tt*MISSISSAGI.—  Bay  and  island,  Algoma. 

tt*MISSISSAGI.— Strait,  Manitoulin. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  57 

MITCHELL.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Hon. 
Peter  Mitchell  (1824-1899),  one  of  the  'Fathers  of  Confederation'  ; 
Minister  of  Marine  and  Fisheries,  1867-73. 

MOBERLY.— Rock,    Sudbury  ;  after  a  lawyer  of  Collingwood. 

MOCKING    BIRD.— Island,  Manitouliii  ;  after   a   tug. 

MOHAWK.— Rock,     Simcoe  ;  probably  after  a  vessel. 

MOILE. — Harbour,  John  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  the  owner  of  a 
sawmill  here.  The  mill  was  seized  by  bailiffs,  but  was  transported 
on  scows  from  Detroit  to  this  point. 

MONCK.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Charles  Stanley,  fourth 
Viscount  Monck  (1819-94)  /;  appointed  Governor-General  of  British 
North  America,  1861-67,  and  of  Canada,  1867-68.  Incorrectly, 
'Monk'  on  the  chart. 

tfMONCK.—  Point,  Cockburn  I.,  Manitoulin. 

*MO>NTRESOR.—  Point,  Bruce  ;  named  by  Bayfield,  probably  af- 
ter Capt.  Henry  Montresor  who  distinguished  himself  in  the  cap- 
ture of  U.  S.  gunboats  at  New  Orleans,  Dec.  12,  1815. 

MOODIE. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Mrs.  Susanna 
Moodie,  authoress  of  "Roughing  It  in  the  Bush,"  etc. 

*MOORE. — Point,  Simcoe  ;  possibly  after  an  official  of  Pene- 
tanguishene  naval  station.  i 

MOORHOTJSE.— Patch,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  boatman  in  sur- 
veying steamer  Bayfield. 

MOOSE.— Point,  Georgian  Bay,  Parry  Sound;  'Moose  Deer' 
point  on  Bouchet'te's  chart,  probably  translation  of  Indian  name. 

MORDEN.— Rock,     Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  lake  captain. 

MORELAND.— Bank,  Manitoulin  •  after  a  steward  in  the  Bay- 
field. 

MORRIS.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  late  Hon.  Alex.  Morris 
(1826-89),  Minister  of  Inland  Revenue,  1869-72  ;  Lieut. -Governor  of 
Manitoba,  1872-77. 

ttMORRIS.-* Island,  Muskoka. 

MORRISON.— Islands,  Serpent  Harbour,  Algoma  ;  after  a  law- 
yer, Owen  Sound. 

MOSLEY.— Island  and  rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  Church  of 
England  clergyman. 

MOUSE.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  "derives  its  name 
from  the  quantity  of  mice  that  abounded  on  it  at  the  time  of  the 
survey." 

MOW  AT.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Sir  Oliver  Mowat  (1820- 
I9°3),  Premier  of  Ontario,  1872-96  ;  Lieut. -Governor  of  Ontario, 
1897-1903. 

tfMOWAT.— Island,    Manitoulin. 

*MUDGE.—  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  possibly  after  Lieut.-Col.  R.  J. 
Mudge,  R.E.  (1790-1854),  Lieutenant-Colonel,  Royal  Engineers,  one 
of  the  commissioners  appointed  in  1830  to  report  on  Maine-Canada 


58  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

boundary.  Or,  after  Capt.  Z'acharie  Mudge  (1770-1852),  first  lieu- 
tenant in  the  Discovery  in  Vancouver's  voyage,  1791-92  ;  Rear- Ad- 
miral, 1830  ;  Admiral,  1849.  ;! 

MULOCK.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Sir  William 
Mulock,  Chief  Justice,  Court  of  Exchequer,  Ontario  ;  Postmaster- 
General,  1896-1905. 

MURIEL. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Muriel  Welsh  Boulton, 
Capt.  Boulton 's  daughter. 

tfMURIEL.— Point,    Manitoulin. 

MURRAY.— Point,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Capt.  Alex.  Murray  Mc- 
Gregor (q.v.) 

ttMURRAY.— Rocks,    Parry  Sound. 

NADEAU. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  Roman  Catholic 
priest  at  Wikwemikong. 

tfNADEAU.— Point,  Smith  Bay,  Manitoulin. 

NANTON.—  Reef,  St.  Joseph  Channel  ;  after  Lieut. -Col.  H.  C. 
Nanton,  R.E.,  a  graduate  of  the  Royal  Military  College,  1883. 

NARES. — Point  and  inlet,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Admiral  Sir 
George  Strong  Nares  ;  commanded  an  expedition  to  the  Arctic, 
1875-76  ;  attained  the,  then,  'farthest  North.' 

NARROW. — Island  and  point,  Manitoulin,  and  point,  Noble  I., 
Algoma  ;  descriptive. 

NARROWS. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive  of  position  near 
narrow  passage. 

NEEBISH.— Island,  and  EAST  NEEBISH,  rapids,  St.  Mary 
River  ;  Indian  name  ;  probably  same  derivation  as  Nabobish,  In- 
dian village,  Mich.,  which  from  nubobish,  "poor  soup." 

NEEL AND. —Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Mayo 
Neeland,  graduate,  Royal  Military  College,  1883'. 

NELLES.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Rev. 
Samuel  Sobieski  Nelles,  D.D.,  LL.D.  (1823-87),  President  of  Vic- 
toria University,  Cobourg,  now  of  Toronto. 

NEPTUNE.— Island,  Cloche  I.,  Sudbury  ;  after  the  steamer  Nep- 
tune in  Hudson  Bay  expedition  under  Lieutenant  Gordon,  1884. 

NEW. — Bank,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Grey  ;  discovered  during  sur- 
vey. , 

NEWBERY.— Cove,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Christian  name  of  Capt. 
Boulton's  son. 

NIAS. — Islands  and  rocks,  Parry  Sound  ;  Lieutenant  John 
Nias  served  on  the  Fury  during  Parry's  Arctic  voyage,  1821-23. 

NICHOLAS.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late 
Nicholas  Flood  Davin  (q.v.)  M.P.  for  Assiniboia  West. 

NICHOLSON.— Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Moses  Vernon  Nichol- 
son, clerk  in  Department  of  Marine  and  Fisheries. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  59 

NICOIyET.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Jean  Nicolet,  the  fam- 
ous French  explorer  who  reached  Sault  Ste.  Marie. 

NIGER. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  Parry  (q.v.)  served  as  I/ieuten- 
ant  in  the  Niger  (38)  in  1815. 

NEWBURN. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  boatman  in  steamer 
Bayfield. 

NISBET.—  Rock,  Sudbury  ;  after  the  chief  engineer  of  the  Bay- 
field.  ,  ! 

NOBIvE. — Bank,  Manitoulin  ;  after  James  Noble,  fish  merch- 
ant. 

tfNOBIvE.— Island,    Serpent  Harbour,  Algoma. 

NORQUAY.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma;  after  the  late 
Hon.  Joseph  Norquay,  Premier  of  Manitoba. 

*NOTTAWASAGA.  —Bay,  Simcoe  ;  Nottaway  (or  Nadowa) 
'adders' — a  name  applied  by  various  Algonquin  tribes  to  a  number 
of  their  neighbouring  and  most  detested  enemies — sag  or  sank  'out- 
let' (of  a  river).  On  Bouchette's  map,  1815,  the  western  portion  is 
called  "Iroquois  Bay." 

NUMBER  9. — Island,  Muskoka  ;  number  given  to  the  island  by 
the  surveyor. 

tfNUMBER  io.— Island,  Muskoka. 

OAK. — Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  this  name  is  also  applied  to 
numerous  other  features  in  Canada,  usually  owing  to  its  predomin- 
ence  in  the  vicinity  over  the  other  varieties  of  trees. 

O'BRIEN. — Islands,  Parry  Sound,  and  patch,  Manitoulin  ;.  after 
the  late  Col.  W.  E.  O'Brien,  M.P.,  in  command  of  the  I2th  York 
Rangers  and  the  35th  Simcoe  Foresters  in  Riel  rebellion,  1885. 

O'CONNOR.— Rocks,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Rt.  Rev.  Richard  Al- 
phonsus  O'Connor,  R.  C.  Bishop  of  Peterborough. 

O'CONNOR.— Island,  North  Channel  ;  probably  after  late  Daniel 
O'Connor,  K.C.,  Ottawa. 

O'DONNEIvIy. — Point  and  channel,  Muskoka  ;  after  the  captain 
of  a  local  passenger  steamer. 

O'DONNEIvL.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  boat- 
man in  the  surveying  steamer  Bayfield., 

O'DWYER.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  an  engineer 
of  Algoma. 

OGIIyVIE.—  Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late  Win. 
Ogilvie,  D.I/.S.  ;  Commissioner,  Yukon,  1898-1901. 

OlyD  TOWER.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  from  old  lighthouse 
on  it. 

OLIVER.— Rock,  Sudbury  ;  after  Major-General  J.  R.  Oliver, 
sometime,  Commandant,  Roval  Military  College,  Kingston  ;  C. 
M.  G.,  1889. 


60  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

O'MEARA.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  former  accountant,  De- 
partment of  Militia. 

OMEMEA. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  Indian  name,  signifies  'wild 
pigeon.' 

ONE-TREE. — Island,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Simcoe  ;  from  a 
"single  ash  tree  .  .  .  blown  down  in  1894." 

tfONE-TREE.—  Island,  Western  Islands,  Muskoka. 
ttONE-TREE.— Island,  Parry  Sound. 
tfONE-TREE.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma. 
ttONE-TREE.—  Island,  Manitoulin. 

ORLEBAR.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Commander  J.  Orlejbar, 
R..N.,  naval  surveyor. 

OSBORN. — Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  chaplain  to  Bishop  Sulli- 
van. 

OSLER.—  Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Hon.  Feather- 
ston  Osier  ;  Judge  of  Common  Pleas,  Ontario,  1875-83  ;  Justice  of 
Appeal  since  1883. 

OSPREY.— Bank,  Muskoka  ;  after  Capt.  Osprey  V.  Spain,  late 
Wreck  Commissioner,  Marine  and  Fisheries  Department. 

OTTER. — Islands,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  an  otter  seen 
swimming  near  the  islands. 

OTTLEY.— Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  Charles  L.  Ottley,  Comman- 
der on  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camperdown  off 
Tripoli,  June  23rd,  1893. 

OUIDA. — Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  one  of  the  children  of  Rev. 
H.  Gaviller,  Parry  Sound. 

OVERHANGING.— Point,  Bruce  ;  "name  given  to  a  cliff  with  a 
projecting  apex." 

*OWEN. — Channel,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Capt.  (later,  Vice- Admir- 
al) William  Fitzwilliam  Owen  (1774-1857)  ;  in  1815  and  1816,  Lieut. 
Bay  field  was  assistant  to  Capt.  Owen  in  the  survey  of  Lake  On- 
tario. Owen  entered  the  navy  in  1788  ;  was  midshipman  in  the  Lon- 
don,,  bearing  the  flag  of  Vice-Admiral  Colpoys  (q.v.)  at  the  date  of 
the  great  mutiny  ;  Lieutenant,  1797  ;  Commander,  1809  ;  Captain, 
1811  ;  in  charge  of  survey  of  Great  Lakes,  March,  1815,  to  May, 
1816  ;  Vice-Admiral,  1854  ;  died  at  St.  John,  N.B.,  1857. 

tt*0 WEN.  —Island,  Manitoulin. 

*OWE}N.— Sound,  Grey  ;  after  Admiral  Sir  Edward  William 
Campbell  Rich  Owen  (1771-1849)  ;  entered  the  navy  1786  ;  in  1796, 
he  was  acting  captain  of  the  Impregnable  with  Rear- Admiral  Sir 
Thomas  Rich  (q.v.),  his  godfather,  and  of  the  Queen  Charlotte  with 
Sir  John  Colpoys  (q.v.)  ;  K.C.B.,  1815  ;  in  October,  1815,  he  sign- 
ed, as  Commodore,  a  'Return  of  officers  serving  on  the  Great 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  61 

Lakes'  ;  Commander-in-Chief  in  the  West  Indies,  1822-25  ;  Rear-Ad- 
miral, 1825  ;  G.C.H.,  1832  ;  Vicc-Admiral,  1837  ;  G.C.B.,  1845  ; 
Admiral,  1846.  It  has  usually  been  assumed  that  Owen  Sound,  like 
Owen  Channel,  was  named  after  his  brother,  William  Fitzwilliam 
Owen,  but  Cape  Commodore  at  the  western  entrance  and  Point  Wil- 
liam, Campbell  Bluff  and  Point  Rich  at  the  eastern,  practically  de- 
monstrate the  accuracy  of  the  above  derivation. 

tfOWEN    vSOUND.— Town,  Grey. 

OWEN.— Island,    Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  former  resident. 

OXLEY. — Point,  Hey  wood  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late 
James  Macdonald  Oxley,  author,  and,  sometime,  clerk  in  Depart- 
ment of  Marine  and  Fisheries. 

PACIFIC. — Rock,  Sudbury  ;  after  the  steamer  Pacific,  which 
struck  on  it. 

PAGE.— Rocks,  North  Channel,  Algoitua  ;  after  John  Page, 
Chief  Engineer  of  Public  Works,  1868-79  ;  Chief 'Engineer  of  Canals, 
1879-90. 

PALESTINE. —Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  "derives  its  name  from 
the  circumstance  of  its  having  formerly  been  used  as  a  rearing  place 
for  bees  from  that  country,  a  reminder  of  which  is  a  couple  of  hive- 
shaped  houses  still  remaining  near  the  north-eastern  side  of  the 
island." 

PALLISER.— Point,  East  Rous  I.,  Sudbury  ;  after  Sir  Edward 
Palliser,  famous  British  gun-maker. 

PANDORA.— Rocks.  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  Georgian 
Bay  vessel. 

PANET.— Point,  Clapt>erton  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  after  late  Col. 
Charles  Eugene  Panet  (1830-98),  Deputy  Minister  of  Militia  and 
Defence,  1875-98. 

PAPINEATL—  Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Hon. 
Louis  Joseph  Papineau  (1786-1871),  of  Montebello,  Oue.  ;  the  prin- 
cipal leader  in  the  Rebellion  in  Lower  Canada,  1837-8. 

*PAPOOSE.—  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  because  near  a  larger  island, 
Squaw  Island. 

*PARRY.—  Sound  and  island,  Parry  Sound.  As  Capt.  Boulton 
named  features  in  Parry  Sound  and  vicinity  after  brother-officers 
and  ships  that  Parry  served  in,  and  after  Parry's  relations,  etc.,  a 
brief  summary  of  his  life  is  given  below,  the  names  that  have  been 
given  to  features  in  Georgian  Bay  being  in  capitals  : 

Rear-Admiral  Sir  William  Edward  Parry  (1790-1855),  s°n  of 
Dr.  CALEB  HILLIER  Parry  and  SARAH,  'his  wife.  His  mother 
was  the  daughter  of  John  RIGBY  and  grand-daughter  of  Dr. 
TAYLOR  of  Norwich.  He  received  the  first  rudiments  of  education 
under  Dr.  MORGAN,  then  headmaster  of  the  Grammar  School, 


62  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

} 

BATH.  In  1803  hei  joined  as  a  Volunteer  the  flagship  of  the  Channel 
fleet,  commanded  by  Admiral  the  Hon.  W.  CORNWALLIS,  Ville  de 
Paris,  Capt.  RICKETTS.  He  contracted  a  friendship  with  the 
Hon.  Chas.  POWYS.  In  1806,  he  was  appointed  midshipman  on  the 
TRIBUNE,  Capt.  (afterwards  Sir  Thomas)  BAKER.  In  1808,  he 
was  transferred  to  the  VANGUARD  commanded  by  Capt.  BAKER, 
later,  by  Capt.  GLYN.  In  1810,  Lieut.  Parry  joined  the  Alexan- 
dria, Capt.  John  QUILLIAM,  later  commanded  by  Capt.  CATH- 
CART.  In  1813,  he  was  appointed  to  La  Hogue,  Capt.  the  Hon. 
Bladen  CAPEL  ;  took  passage  on  the  SCEPTRE  to  join  his  ship  at 
Halifax.  The  following  year  he  commanded  one  of  the  boats  in  a 
" cutting-out"  expedition  under  Capt.  COOTE  of  the  BORER  brig, 
up  the  Connecticut  River.  In  1815,  he  served  in  the  ARDENT,  Car- 
ron  and  NIGER  ;  was  seized  with  a  severe  illness  when  on  his  way 
from  Bermuda  to  Halifax,  in  the  Menai,  Capt.  PELL.  While  at 
Halifax,  he  contracted  an  intimate  friendship  with  the  admiral's 
secretary,  Chas.  MARTYR.  In  1818,  he  went  to  the  Arctic  as  sec- 
ond in  command  of  Capt.  John  Ross' expedition.  In  the  same  year, 
Lieut.  John  FRANKLIN  sailed  in  the  Trent,  another  Arctic  expedi- 
tion, as  second  in  command  under  Capt.  Buchan.  In  1819,  he  was  ap- 
pointed to  the  command  of  an  Arctic  expedition  in  the  HECLA  and 
GRIPER  with  Lieut.  LIDDON,  as  second  in  command.  In  1821,  he 
made  his  second  voyage,  with  Commander  LYON  as  second  in  com- 
mand. Other  officers  were  Lieuts.  NIAS,  H.  P.  HOPPNER  and 
PALMER  and  Purser  W.  H.  HOOPER.  In  1841,  he  married 
CATHERINE  EDWARDS,  daughter  of  the  Rev.  R.  HANKINSON, 
Lynn. 

ftPARRY.— Harbour,  Parry  Sound. 

tfPARRY  SOUND.— Town  and  district. 

PARSONS.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  Georgian 
Bay  captain. 

PASTURE.— Point,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  in  contrast 
to  rugged  shores  in  vicinity  ;  the  point  is  low  and  flat. 

PAT  HOWE. — Patch,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  boatman  in  survey- 
ing steamer  Bayfield. 

PATRICK.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  Col.  W.  Patrick  Anderson, 
Chief  Engineer,  Department  of  Marine  and  Fisheries. 

ttPATRICK  POINT.— Bank,  Algoma. 

PATTEN.— Island,  Goat  Channel,  Sudbury  ;  after  a  merchant  of 
Little  Current. 

PATTERSON.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  boatman  in 
steamer  Bayfield. 

PATTERSON.— Point,  Frechette  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  Hon.  Wil- 
liam Patterson,  M.P.  for  South  Brant,  1872-96,  for  North  Grey, 
1896-1900,  for  Wentworth  and  Brant  North,  1900-04,  and  for  Brant 
1904-1911  ;  Minister  of  Customs  1897-1911. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  63 

*PAULETT.— Cape,  Bruce  ;  probably  after  Capt.  Lord  H  Paul- 
ett,  R.N. 

PAWSKY.— Rock,    Muskoka  ;     after    Charles  J.  Pawsey,  Secre- 
tary in  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camperdown,    June 
1893- 

PEASE. — Rock,.  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  boatman  in  steamer  Bay- 
field. 

PELHAM. — Cove,  Parry  Sound  ;  probably  after  Capt.  Freder- 
ick S.  Pelham,  Refeir- Admiral,  1907  ;  is  now,  Admiral  Superintend- 
ent at  Gibraltar. 

PELICAN.—  Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  one  of  d'Iberville's  ves- 
sels. In  1697,  d'Iberville  sank  the  Hampshire  in  Hudson  Bay  and 
captured  Fort  Nelson. 

PEI/KIE.— Rock,  Smith  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  an  Indian  at 
Wikwemikong. 

PELL.—  Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Capt.  Pell  of  H.M.S.  Menai 
in  which  Parry  sailed. 

PELLET  ANS.  —Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  Canadian  who  long 
cultivated  some  land  on  an  island  at  its  east  end. 

PENDER. — Islets,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  naval  surveyor,  Capt 
Daniel  Pender,  R.N.  ;  surveyed  coast  of  British  Columbia,  1857-70. 

PENETANG.— Rock,  Muskoka  ;  "so  called  from  the  fact  that 
the  smaller  craft  using  the  passage  east  of  Minnicoganashene 
Island,  on  theii  way  to  Penetanguishene,  have  to  pass  round  this, 
or  rather  leave  the  main  ship's  track  here." 

PENETANGUISHENE.— Harbour,  Simcoe  ;  Indian  name 
meaning  "the  place  of  the  white  rolling  sands"  ;  from  a  bank  of 
sand  on  Pinery  Point  on  west  side  of  harbour. 

PERKINS.— Rock,  Key  Harbour,  Parry  Sound;  after  engineer 
on  Canadian  Northern  Ry.  surveys. 

PERLEY. — Island,  Manitoulin  ;  island,  Sudbury,  and  rock,  Par- 
ry Sound  ;  after  the  late  Major  Henry  F.  Perley,  Chief  Engineer, 
Department  of  Public  Works,  1880-91. 

*PERRIOUE.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  appears  on 
Bayfield's  chart  ;  name  probably  given  by  French  voyageurs  to  com- 
memorate some  occurrence  in  which  a  wig  played  a  prominent 
part.  A  reference  in  Badgley's  diary  shows  that  the  name  was  in 
use  in  1792. 

PERSEVERANCE.— Island,  Owen  Channel,  Manitoulin  ;  after 
the  gunboat  Perseverance  wrecked  at,  or  near,  here. 

PETER.— Islands,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Peter  Scott, 
naval  surveyor. 

PETLEY.— Rock,  George  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  naval  survey- 
or ;  possibly,  Eaton  Wallace  Petley,  Nav.  -Lieutenant,  retired, 
1886. 


54  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

PHILIP  EDWARD.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Philip  Edward 
Collins,  Assistant  to  Capt.  Bayfield  in  survey  of  Lakes  Huron  and 
Superior. 

PHILLIPS.— Shoal,  Key  Harbour,  Parry  Sound  •  after  William 
Phillips,  late  Gen.  Freight  Agent,  Canadian  Northern  Ry. 

PHIPPS.— Point,  and  PHIPPS  POINT,  shoal,  Manitoulin  ;  af- 
ter the  Indian  agent  at  Manitowaning. 

PHOEBE. — Point,  Fitzwilliam  I.,  Manitoulin,  and  rocks,  Parry 
Sound  ;  after  the  schooner  Phoebe  Catherine. 

PICTURE.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  "derives  its 
name  from  a  couple  of  white  patches  resembling  an  Indian  and 
squaw  with  snowshoes  over  their  shoulders." 

PIERCE. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  caretaker  of  clubhouse 
of  Hamilton  Canoe  Club  on  the  island. 

PIERCY.— Rocks,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Canon 
C.  Piercy,  Sault  Ste.  Marie,  Church  of  England  clergyman,  former- 
ly at  Marks ville. 

PIG,  THE. — Rockr  Muskoka  ;  "named  from  the  appearance  of  a 
large  boulder  lying  on  it." 

PINCH. — Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  lumberman  at  Collins  In- 
let. 

PINCH-GUT.— Point,  Darch  I.,  Algoma  ;  local  name  ;  from  the 
men  working  in  a  quarry  at  this  point,  having  run  short  of  food. 

*PINERY.— Point,  Simcoe  ;  from  the  pines  that  grew  there.  La- 
batte  in  his  narrative  of  "The  Migration  of  Voyageurs  from-  Drum^- 
mond  Island,"  says  :  "The  barracks  of  Penetanguishcne  were  built 
of  Norway  pine  from-  Pinery  Point."  "Pine  Point"  on  Bayfield' s 
chart. 

PLOUGH  BOY.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the 
steamer  Plough  Boy. 

PLUMB. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Hon.  Josiah 
Burr  Plumb  (1816-88)  ;  Senator,  1882  ;  Speaker  of  Senate,  1887. 

PLUMMER.— Island  and  bank,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ; 
after  Wm.  Plummer,  sometime  manager  of  the  Bruce  mines. 

POLLARD.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Rev.  Henry  Pollard, 
Ottawa,  Church  of  England  clergyman. 

POND.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  "so  called  from  a  lake  immediate- 
lv  back  of  it." 

POOL. — Rocks,  .Western  Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  from  the  pools 
of  water  in  hollows  in  rocks. 

POPE- — Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  Hon.  John  Henry  Pope, 
Minister  of  Agriculture,  1878-85  ;  Minister  of  Railways  and  Canals, 
1885-89. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  65 

POPHAM.—  Point,  Matiitoulin  ;  after  Capt.  Stephen  Popham, 
commanding  H.M.S.  Montreal  (22)  on  Great  Lakes,  1814. 

PORTAGE.— Island  and  point,  Muskoka  ;  from  a  portage  across 
inner  portion  of  the  point. 

PORTER.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  R.  Porter,  M.P.  for  West 
Huron,  1887-91. 

*PORTLOCK.—  Harbour  Algoma;  probably  after  Capt.  Na- 
thaniel Portlock  (1748-1817)  ;  explored  and  traded  on  Pacific  coast 
of  Canada,  1785-88. 

tlPORTLOCK.—  Island,  Algoma. 

POT VIN.— Point,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  merchant  of  Byng  In- 
let. 

POWELL.— Cove,  and  POWELL  COVE,  bank,  Heywood  I., 
Manitoulin  ;  after  Col.  Walker  Powell,  Adjutant  General  of  Militia, 
1873-74  and  1875-95. 

POWER.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  late  Augustus  Power, 
K.C.,  Department  of  Justice. 

POWYS.—  Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Lieut,  the  Hon.  Charles 
Powys,  who  served  in  the  Ville  de  Paris,  Parry's  (q.>v.)  first  vessel. 

PRAIRIE. — Point,  Bruce  ;  descriptive,  being  a  broad,  flat, 
bare,  low  point. 

PRATT.— Island  and  reef,  Key  Harbour,  Parry  Sound  ;  after 
the  Engineer  of  Terminals,  Canadian  Northern  Ry. 

PRATT.— Shoal,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  resident  of  Parry 
Sound. 

PRENDERGAST.  —Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a 
friend  of  Capt.  Boulton. 

PRESENT.  — Island,  Simcoe  ;  so  named  from  the  annual  gath- 
ering of  the  Indians  to  receive  the  customary  distribution  of  pres^ 
ents  from  the  Government. 

*PRINCE  WILLIAM  HENRY.— Island,  Simcoe  ;  after  Prince 
William  Henry,  Duke  of  Clarence,  brother  of  George  III,  later  Wil- 
liam IV.  Name  obsolete,  now  called  Beausoleil. 

PR  OUT. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  customs  offi- 
cer, Bruce  Mines. 

PR OVO.—  Shoal,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Lieut.  Wallis  Provo  of 
H.M.S.  Shannon,  which  captured  the  U.S.S.  Cftesapeake,  June  ist, 
1813. 

PUDDING.— Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  conglomerate  (pudding- 
stone)  rock  on  this  island. 

*PUMPKIN.—  Point,  Lake  George,  Algoma  ;  probably  a  vege- 
table garden  at  this  point. 

PYETTE.— Point  and  hill,  Grey,  and  point,  Huckleberry  I ., 
Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  resident. 

PYM.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  naval  officer. 


66  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

QUAI  DBS  ROCHES.— Point,  Christian  Island,  Simcoe  ; 
"name  applied  to  a  pile  of  stones." 

QUARRY.— Island,    Simcoe  ;  from  an  old  quarry  on  it. 

QUEBEC. — Bay,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algorna  ;  after  the  steam- 
er Quebec. 

QUEEN. — Reef,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  tug  Queen. 

QUILLIAM.— Shoal,  Parry  Sound  ;  Liieut.  W.  E.  Parry  served 
in  the  Alexandria,  in  1810,  under  Capt.  John  Quilliam., 

RAFT. — Point,   Simcoe  ;  rafts  tie  up  to  it  for  shelter. 

RAGGED. — Point,  Alexander  Inlet,  Parry  Sound,  and  point, 
Squall  I.,  Manitoulin  ;  descriptive. 

RAINBOTH.— Island,  North  Channel,  Lake  Huron  ;  after  J.  E. 
Rainboth,  D.L.S.,  Ottawa. 

RAMSEY. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  an  engineer 
on  Canadian  Pacific  Ry. 

RANNIE. — Rocks,    Manitoulin  ;  after  a  fishing  tug. 

RASPBERRY.— Island;  Manitoulin  ;  characteristic. 

RATTLESNAKE.— Isiands,  North  Channel  ;  from  the  number 
of  these  snakes  formerly  to  be  found  there. 

RED. — Rock,  Muskoka  ;  rock,  Manitoulin  ;  rock,  Parry  Sound, 
and  REDCLIFF,  bight,  Manitoulin  ;  "the  moss  on  it  gives  it  a  red- 
dish or  orange  colour." 

REFORMATORY.— Point,  Simcoe;  from  the  Provincial  Re- 
formatory built  on  it. 

*RENNIE.—  Bay,  Muskoka  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  possibly  alter 
an  official  of  Penetanguishene  naval  station  ;  is  not  on  Boulton's 
chart,  but  was  not  surveyed  by  him. 

RESCUE.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  gunboat  Res- 
cue on  Great  Lakes. 

RESTLESS.— Bank,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  lake  ves- 
sel. 

*RICH. — Cape,  Grey  ;  after  Commodore  Sir  Edward  William 
Campbell  Rich  Owen  (q^v.)  who  was  godson  of  Sir  Thomas  Rich. 

RICHARDS.— Reef,  Fraser  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  naval  sur- 
veyor, Admiral  Sir  George  Henry  Richards  (1820-1900)  ;  surveyed 
British  Columbia  coast,  1856-63  ;  commanded  the  Assistance  in  the 
Belcher  Arctic  expedition  in  search  of  Franklin,  1852-54  ;  Hydro- 
grapher,  1864-74. 

RICHELIEU.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Cardin- 
al Richelieu  (1585-1642),  principal  adviser  of  Louis  XIII  of  France, 

RICHMOND.— Rock,    Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  captain  of;  a  tug. 
RICKETTS.— Island  and  reef,   Parry  Sound  ;  after  Capt.    Rick- 
etts  of  the  Ville  de  Paris,  in  which  veissel  Parry  (q.v.)  first  went  to 
sea,  1803. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  67 

RICKCORD.— Rocks,  Muskoka  ;  after  Valentine  D.  J.  Rickcord, 
Fleet  Paymaster  in  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Cami- 
perdown  off  Tripoli,  1893. 

RIDOUT.—  Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  late  F.  Ridout,  C.E., 
Inspecting  Engineer,  Department  of  Railways  and  Canals. 

RIGBY.— Island,  Waubuno  Channel,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  John 
Rigby,  rnaternal  grandfather  of  Parry  (q.v.). 

RIGG.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Major  Rigg,  Royal  Military 
College. 

RILEY. — Patch,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  boatman  in  steamer  Bay- 
field. 

RITCHIE.— Point  .and  rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Sir 
William, Ritchie  ;>,  Chief  Justice,  Supreme  Court  of  (New  Brunswick, 
1 865-75  ;  Puisne  Judge,  Supreme  Court,  1875-79  ;  Chief  Justice  of 
the  Supreme  Court,  1879-92. 

ROBB.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  tug  Robb. 

*ROBERT.— Cape,  Manitoulin  I.  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  deriva- 
tion unknown. 

*ROBERTS.— Bay,  Muskoka  ;  not  on  Boulton's  chart,  but  was 
not  surveyed  by  himt  ;  named  by  Bayfield,  possibly  after  an  official 
of  Penetanguishene  naval  station. 

ROBERTSON.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Manitoulin;  after  Capt. 
Tate  Robertson  of  the  Frances  Smith,  who  reported  it. 

ROBIN. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  from  fancied  resem- 
blance in  outline,  to  a  robin. 

ROBINSON.— Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Hon.  John  Beverly  Robin- 
son (1821-96),  Lieut. -Governor  of  Ontario,  1880-87. 

ROBITAILLE.—  Point,  Darch  I.,  Algoma  ;  probably  after  Hon. 
Theodore  Robitaille,  Lieut. -Governor  of  Quebec,  1879-84. 

ROB  ROY.— Patch,  North  Chatinel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  lake  ves- 
sel. 

ROSS.— Shoal,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  A.  B.  Ross, 
graduate  of  the  Royal  Military  College,  1880. 

ROSE. — Rocks,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;   after  a  lake  vessel. 

ROSSEATL—  Island  and  shoal,  St.  Joseph  I.,  Algoma  ;  after  a 
former  resident  opposite  the  island. 

*ROUS.—  EAST  and  WEST,  islands,  Sudbury  ;  after  Admiral 
Henry  John  Rous  (1795-1877)  ;  Admiral  of  the  White,  1864. 

ROWLAND.— Bank,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Grey  ;  after  a  hotelman 
of  Colling  wood. 

ROYAL.— Point,  Innes  I.,  Algoma;  after  Hon.  Joseph  Royal, 
Lieut. -Governor  of  Northwest  Territories,  1888-93. 

RYKERT.—  Point,  Algoma  ;  after  J.  C.  Rykert,  M.P.  for  Lin- 
coln 1878-82,  for  Lincoln  and  Niagara  1882-91. 


68  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

ST.  ANGE. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Chevalier 
St.  Ange,  a  French  half  breed  who,  at  one  time,  resided  on  Cheva- 
lier Island. 

ST.  AIJBYN.— Bay,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Major  the  Hon.  J.  T. 
St.  Aubyn,  Military  Secretary  to  Lord  Stanley,  Governor-General, 
1892-93. 

ST.  JOSEPH. — Island,  Algoma  ;  so  named  from  its  position  in 
the  St.  Mary  River,  which  last  named  by  French  missionaries  af- 
ter the  Virgin  Mary. 

ST.  JUST.— Islands,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  aiter  the  Hon. 
LUC  Letellier  de  St.  Just,  Lieut. -Governor  of  Quebec,  1876-79. 

ST.   PAUL.— Rock,  Aird  Island,  Algoma  ;  after  a  lake  steamer. 

SABINE. — Island,  French  River,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Admiral 
Sir  Thomas  Sabine  Pasley  (1804-84). 

SACKVILLE.  —Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Lionel  (Sackville), 
2nd  Baron  Sackville  (1827-1903),  British  Minister  at  Washington, 
1881-88. 

SALT.— Point,  Parry  Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  "after  the  Indian 
Methodist  missionary  residing  here." 

SAM  SMITH.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  boat- 
man in  surveying  steamer  Bayfield. 

SANDFIELD.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  Hon.  John  Sand- 
field  Macdonald  (1812-72),  Premier  of  Canada,  1862-64  ;  opposed 
Confederation  ;  Premier  of  Ontario,  1867-71. 

SANDFORD.— Ground,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Grey  ;  after  Sir 
Sandford  Fleming,  an  eminent  Canadian  civil  engineer. 

SANFORD.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Hon.  W.  E. 
Sanford  (1838-1899),  Hamilton  ;  Senator,  1887. 

SANKEY.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Major 
Sankey,  sometime  Professor  of  Military  Engineering,  Royal  Mili- 
tary College. 

SANS  SOUCI.— Islands, Parry  Sound  ;  after  Sans  Souci  pal- 
ace, Potsdam,  Prussia,  built  by  Frederick  the  Great,  1745-47. 

SAPPER.— Island,  St. -Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  grad- 
uate of  the  Royal  Military  College. 

SARAH.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  daughter  of  Capt.  Cox, 
R.N.,  naval  surveyor. 

SARAH.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Sarah  Rigby,  mother  of 
Parry  (q.v.). 

SAULT  STE.  MARIE.— Town,  Algoma  ;  after  the  rapids  in 
the  St.  Mary  River  which  so  named  by  the  French  missionaries  af- 
ter the  Virgin  ;  previously  called  "Sault  du  Gaston"  after  Jean- 
Baptiste  Gaston,  younger  brother  of  Louis  XIII  and  son  of  Henry 
IV.  According  to  tn"e  Indian  legend,  the  great  demi-god,  Nanab- 
ozho,  "when  he  found  the  waters  of  Lake  Superior  rising,  put  on 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  60 

his  great  boots  and  walked  around  the  lake  until  he  found  at  the 
Sault  that  the  great  White  Beaver  had  built  a  dam  and  that  he 
kicked  away  the  dam  and  opened  up"  the  water  course.,  The  Chip- 
pewa  village  was  called  Pawating  (Bawitjing),  a  cognate  form  of 
bawl  li°iink,  "at  the  rapids."  The  old  village  site  is  the  most 
sacred  spot  known  to  the  old-time  Chippewa  and  a  Chippewa  who 
has  been  to  the  rapids  has  made  a  holy  pilgrimage. 

SAYER. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  trader  at 
Mississagi  River. 

SCEPTRE.— Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  Parry  (q.v.)  travelled  from 
England  to  Halifax  in  H.M.S.  Sceptre  in  1813. 

SCHREIBER.— Island,  Sudbury  ;  after  Collingwood  Schreiber, 
C.M.G.,  Deputy  Minister  and  Chief  Engineer,  Dept.  of  Railways 
and  Canals,  1892  ;  now,  Consulting  Engineer  of  same  Department. 

SCHUI/TZ'.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late 
Sir  John  Schultz,  Lieut. -Governor  of  Manitoba,  1888-95., 

SCOTT.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Peter  Scott,  naval  sur- 
veyor. 

ttSCOTT.— Island,  and  SCOTT  ISLAND,  passage,  North  Chan- 
nel, Algoma. 

SEAGRAM.—  Rock,  near  Pt.  Magnet,  Thunder  Bay  ;  after  Jos. 
Seagram,  M.P.  for  Waterloo  North,  1896-1904. 

SEAMAN. — Bank,    Muskoka  ;  after  tug  Seaman. 

SECRETARY.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Sec- 
tary to  the  Admiralty,  John  Wilson  Croker  (q.v.). 

SEDGEWICK.— Point,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Robert  Sedgewick, 
Deputy  Minister  of  Justice,  1888-93  \  Puisne  Judge,  Supreme  Court, 
1893. 

SEGUIN. — Bank,   Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  steambarge  Seguin. 

SENEGAL.— Point,  Clapperton  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  A. 
Senecal,  Superintendent  of  Printing,  1888-91. 

*SERPENT.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  probably  voy- 
ageur  name  given  because  infested  with  snakes. 

SERPENT. — Harbour  and  river,  Algoma  ;  from  a  perpendicu- 
lar rock  at  the  mouth  of  the  river,  on  which  a  huge  serpent  is  carv- 
ed. 

SEVERN.— River,  and  PORT  SEVERN,  village,  Simcoe  ;  after 
the  River  Severn  bordering  England  and  Wales.  Indian  name  was 
wai-nautkecheaing  meaning  river  running  about  in  all  directions. 

SEXTANT. — Bay  and  point,  Manitoulin  ;  a  sextant  was  lost 
off  this  point. 

SEYMOUR.— Rock,    Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  lake  steamer. 

SHANI.Y.— Island,  North  Channel  ;  after  the  late  Walter  Shan- 
ly,  C.I5.,  M.P.  for  South  Grenville,  1867-72  and  1885-91. 


70  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

SHANNON.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  British  vessel  Shan- 
non, which  captured  the  U.S.S.  Chesapeake,  June  ist,  1813. 

SHAWANAGA. — Bay,  island  and  river,  Parry  Sound  ;  Indian 
name  meaning  "a  long  bay  or  strait." 

SHEBASHEKONG.  —Bay  and  river,  Parry  Sound  ;  from  In- 
dian name  nebeshekong  meaning,  "at  the  place  of  leaves." 

SHEPHERD.— Reef,  North  Channel,  Alijoma  ;  afto.r  a  light- 
keeper  at  Sulphur  Island. 

SHlCKIvUNA.—  Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  propeller 
Shickluna,  which  named  after  owner. 

SHIP. — Island,  Muskoka  ;  "so  called  because  vessels  keep  it 
close  on  board  to  avoid  Otonabee  shoal." 

SHUT-IN. — Point,   Manitoulin  ;   descriptive. 

SICCORDE.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  a  local  merchant. 

SIDNEY.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Sidney  Band,  son  of 
Bursar  of  the  Penetanguishene  Reformatory. 

Slt,BOW. — Rock,    Parry  Sound  ;  local  name  ;  after  a  dog. 

SIMON.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late  Simon 
J.  Dawson,  M.P.  (q.v.). 

SIMPSON.— Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Sir  George  Simpson,  Gov- 
ernor of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Co.,  1822-1860. 

SIMS. — Point,   Manitoulin  ;  after  Capt.  Sims,  Sarnia. 

SKINNER.— Bluff ,    Grey  ;  after  a  farmer  residing  there. 

SKULJv. — Island  and  point,  Manitoulin  ;  a  large  number  of 
skeletons  were  found  in  a  pit  in  the  rock  on  the  island. 

ttSKUIyly  POINT.— Reef,  Manitoulin. 

SKYLARK.— Rock,  Muskoka  ;  after  yacht  Skylark  owned  by 
Dodge  of  New  York  and  Waubaushene. 

SMITH. — Bay,  Parry  Sound  •  after  one  of  the  crew  of  steamer 
Bay  field. 

*SMITH.—  Bay  and  capet  Harbour,  Algoma  ;  after  late  William 
Smith  (q.v.),  Deputy  Minister  of  Marine. 

ttSMlTH.—  Rock,  Manitoulin. 

*SMITH.—  Bay  and  cape,  Manitoulin  ;  probably  after  Sir  Wil- 
liam Sidney  Smith  (1764-1840).  Bayfield  entered  the  Navy  in  1806 
as  supernumerary  volunteer  in  the  Pompee,  the  flagship  of  Sir  Wil- 
liam Sidney  Smith.  'Smyth'  on  Bay  field's  chart. 

SMITH.— Shoal,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma;  after  the  steam>- 
er  Frances  Smith. 

SNAKE.— Bank  and  island,  and  UTTIvE  SNAKE,  island, 
Parry  Sound  ;  noted  for  snakes. 

SNIDER. — Island,  Serpent  Harbour,  Algoma  ;  after  a  resident 
of  Serpent  River. 

SOLITARY. — Rock,  Georgian  Bay,  Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  71 

SOLOMON. — Point,  Stewart  Island,  Algoma,  and  rock,  Parry 
Sound  ;  after  Chief  Solomon,  an  Indian  chief. 

SOPHIA.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  daughter  of  Capt.  Cox, 
R.N. 

SOW,  THE.— Rock,  Muskoka  ;  near  "The  Pig." 

SOW  AND  PIGS,— Islands,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  descrip- 
tive. 

SPAIN.— Rock,  Muskoka;  after  Capt.  .0.  V.  Spain,  late  Wreck 
Commissioner ,  Department  of  Marine  and  Fisheries. 

^SPANISH.— River,  Algoma  ;  Bigsby  says  that  the  name  "is 
given  to  it  from  its  having  been  once  occupied  by  Spanish  In 
dians."  This,  however,  is  incredible.  It  was  probably  n*ame<* 
"Spanish"  in  centra-distinction  to  the  "French"  river  further  east. 
Name  appears  on  Bayfield's  chart,  but  not  on  Bouchette's  map, 
1815. 

SPARKS. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  well  known  Ottawa 
family. 

SPARTAN. — Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  steam- 
er Spartan. 

SPECTACLE.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  from  resemblance  in 
form  to  a  pair  of  spectacles. 

SPILSBURY.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;,  after  Capt.  Francis  Brock- 
ell  Spilsbury,  R.N.,  in  command  of  schooner  Melville  on  Lake  On- 
tario, August  loth,  1815  ;  commanded  the  Beresford  at  Sackett's 
Harbour  ;  *was  present  in  actions  off  Burlington,  Sept.  28th,  1813, 
and  at  French  Creek,  Nov.  ist,  1813  ;  Captain  commanding  Niag- 
ara, May  2 ist,  1814  ;  present  at  Oswego,  May  6th,  1814.  In  1806 
Bayfield  was  serving  in  the  Duchess  of  Bedford,  a  hired  armed  ves- 
sel, commanded  by  Lieut.  Spilsbury,  and  was  slightly  wounded  in 
a  severe  action  in  the  Strait  of  Gibraltar  in  which  that  vessel  beat 
off  two  Spanish  feluccas  with  double  her  crew. 

SPLIT. — Rock,  Muskoka  ;  descriptive, 

SPOHN.— Spit,  Muskoka  ;  after  P.  H.  Spohn,  M.P.  for  Simcoe 
East,  1891-92 

SPOTTED.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  "so  called  from 
the  circumstance  of  its  being  patchy." 

SPRAGGE.— Island,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late  Hon.  John  God- 
frey Spragge,  Justice  of  the  High  Court,  Chancery  Div.,  Ontario, 
1850-69,  and  Chancellor,  1869-81  ;  Chief  Justice  of  Ontario,  1881-84. 

*SPRATT. — Point,  Simcoe  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  possibly  after 
an  official  of  Penetanguishene  naval  station. 

SPRAY.— Rock,  Muskoka  ;  from  "being  bold-to  on  the  west 
side,  every  little  sea  causes  spray  to  fly  over  it." 

SPROULE.— Islands,  North  Channel,  Algoma;  after  Dr.  Thomas 
Simpson  Sproule,  M.P.  for  East  Grey  since  1878  ;  Speaker  since 
1911. 


72  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL,  SOCIETY, 

*SQUAW. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  so  named  by  Bayfield  ;  small- 
er islands  near  were  named  "Papoose." 

STAIRS.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Capt.  W.  G.  Stairs, 
graduate,  Royal  Military  College,  1882  ;  he  accompanied  Stanley 
through  Africa. 

STALKER.— Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  alter  a  fisherman. 

STANLEY. — Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Lord  Stanley,  Governor- 
General  of  Canada,  1888-93  ;  sue.  his  father  as  Karl  of  Derby,  1893. 

STANLEY.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Sir  Henry  M.  Stan- 
ley, noted  African  explorer. 

STANLEY.— Point,  Heywood  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Capt. 
Stanley,  a  naval  surveyor,  contemporary  of  Capt.  Boulton. 

STARVATION. — Bay,  Parry  Sound  ;  from  a  camping  party 
having  been  wrecked  here. 

STEELE.— Rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Vivian  H.  Steele,  clerk  in 
Department  of  Marine  and  Fisheries. 

STEEPLE.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  "derives  its  name 
from  its  pinnacly  nature." 

STEERS. — Rock,  Muskoka  ;  after  a  resident  of  Penetangui- 
shene. 

STEPHENS.— Ground,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Grey  ;  after  a 
merchant,  Collingwood. 

STEPHEN. — Cove,  Manitoulin  :  after  a  physician  at  Manito- 
waning. 

STEWART.— Island,  Algoma,  and  rock,  Owen  Channel,  Mani- 
toulin ;  after  W.  J.  Stewart,  Chief  Hydrographer  of  Canada  ;  as- 
sistant to  Capt.  Boulton,  1883  to  1893',  when  succeeded  latter. 

STONY. — Island,  Bayfield  Sound,  Manitoulin  ;  from  being 
"connected  to  the  point  northward  of  it  by  a  bank  of  dry  stones." 

STORY.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  tug 
Story  or,  after  her  owner. 

STRANGE.— Bay  and  point,  Bedford  Island,  North  Channel  ; 
after  late  Major-General  Thomas  Bland  Strange  ;  in  1871  appoint- 
ed to  command  of  Canadian  artillery  ;i  commanded  Alberta  field 
force  in  rebellion  of  1885. 

STRAUBENZ'IE.— Point  and  reef,  Bedford  Island,  North  Chan-^ 
nel  ;   after  the  late  Lieut. -Col.   Bo  wen  Van  Straubenzie,     b.    1829  ; 
commanded  the  Infantry  Brigade  at  the  action  of  Batoche,  1885. 

STRAWBERRY.— Channel  and  island,  Manitoulin  ;  from  the 
wild  strawberries  growing  on  the  island. 

STRUTHERS.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  phys- 
ician, Algoma. 

SULLIVAN.— Patch,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Rt.  Rev.  Edward  Sul- 
livan, late  Bishop  of  Algom-a. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  73 

*SULPHUR.—  Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  named  by  Bay- 
field  ;  derivation  unknown,  but  probably  in  use  before  date  of  sur- 
vey. 

SUI/TAN.—  Rock,   Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  lake  vessel. 

SUPERIOR.— Shoal,     Muskoka  ;  after  tug  Superior. 

SUPPLY. — Point,  Algoma  ;  "derives  its  name  from  a  small 
cove  on  the  west  side  of  the  point  affording  good  landing  for  pro- 
visions sent  in  to  the  parties  working  on  the  railway." 

SURPRISE. — Shoal,  Bruce  ;  from  being  unexpected  ;  it  is  at  a 
considerable  distance  from  land. 

SUSANNA. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Mrs.  Sus- 
anna Moodie,  authoress  of  "Roughing  It  in  the  Bush,"  etc. 

SUTHERLAND.— Shoal,  Manitoulin  ;  after  one  of  the  boatmen 
on  surveying  steamer  Bayfield. 

S  WE  ATM  AN. — Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  the  Most  Rev.  Arthur 
Sweatman  (1834-1909),  Archbishop  of  Toronto. 

*SYDNEY.—  Bay,  Bruce  ;  possibly  after  John  Thomas  (Town- 
shend),  2nd  Viscount  Sydney  (1764-1831),  Lord  of  the  Admiralty, 
1789-93  ;  or,  after  Sir  Sydney  Smith  (q.v.)., 

SYLVAIN.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  L.  P.  Syl- 
vain,  Chief  Clerk,  Library  of  Parliament. 

SYLVIA.— Rock,  Alexander  Inlet,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  Bri- 
tish surveying  vessel. 

SYMES.— Rock,    North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  lake  captain. 

TABLE. — Rocks,  Muskoka  ;  "from  the  flat  appearance  of  the 
top  of  the  highest  one." 

TACHE.— Island  and  TACHE  ISLAND,  reef,  Manitoulin;  after 
the  Most  Rev.  Archbishop  Tache,  St.  Boniface,  Man. 

TALBOT.— Islands,  Muskoka  ;  after  Col.  O.  E.  Talbot,  M.P. 
for  Bellechase,  1896-1911. 

TALON.— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Jean  Talon, 
Intendant  of  New  France,  1663-68  and  1669-75. 

TASCHEREAU.— Bay,  North  Channel  ;  after  late  Sir  Henri 
Elzear  Taschereau,  Puisne  Judge,  Supreme  Court  of  Canada, 
1878-1902  ;  Chief  Justice,  Supreme  Court,  1902  ;  died,  1911. 

TAYLOR.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  great-grandfather 
of  Parry  (q.v.). 

TEAT,  THE.— Rocks,  Muskoka  ;  "so  called  from  the  appear- 
ance of  the  southeastern  one." 

TECUMSEH— Cove,  Cove  Island,  Bruce  ;  the  steamer  Tecum- 
s6h  was  wrecked  here. 

TELEGRAM.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  steamer  Tele- 
gram. 


74  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

TEMPLE.—  Rocks,  Algoma  ;  after  an  American  tug,  Temple 
Emery.  «  ,  i 

TENBY.— Bay,  St.  Joseph  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Tenby, 
town,  Wales  ;  named  by  late  Major  Rains,  one  of  the  first  settlers. 

TEN-MILE. — Point  and  shoal,  Manitoulin  ;  "derives  its  name 
from  being  nearly  that  distance  from  Manitowaning." 

TENNANT. — Point,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Lady  Stanley,  nee  Dor- 
othy Tennant  ;  married  Sir  H.  M.  Stanley,  African  explorer,  1890. 

TEN-RIB. — Rock,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algomja  ;  a  fisherman 
broke  ten  ribs  of  his  boat  by  running  on  this  rock. 

TERN. — Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  sea-swal- 
low. 

THEBO. — Point  and  cove,  Killarney  Harbour  ;  after  a  merch- 
ant, Killarney. 

THE  COUSIN.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  descriptive  ; 
the  islands  are  close  together  and  with  shoal  water  between. 

THESSA'LON.  —River,  Algoma  ;  said  by  the  Chief  of  the  Mis- 
sissagi  band  to  mean  "slow"  ;  the  Chief  of  the  Thessalon  band 
says  it  means  "a  long,  narrow  point"  ;  called  by  the  Jesuits  "Tes- 
salon." 

tfTHESSALON.  —Island  and  river,  Algoma. 

THE  TOOTH.— Rock,  Manitoulin  ;   descriptive. 

THE  TRIANGLE.— Rocks,  Manitoulin  ;  "name  given  to  three 
sunken  rocks." 

THE    TRIPLETS.— Islands,  Muskoka  ;  descriptive. 

THE  WALL-— Reef,  Manitoulin  ;  "on  account  of  the  steepness 
of  its  eastern  side." 

THISTLE.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  late  W.  R.  Thistle, 
lumberman,  Ottawa. 

THOMAS.— Bay  and  point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Col.  Thos.  Ben- 
son, Master-General  of  the  Ordnance,  Ottawa  ;  graduate,  Royal 
Military  College,  1883. 

THOMAS.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Thomas 
Kirke,  in  command  of  the  George  at  capture  of  Quebec,  1629. 

THOMAS  LONG.— Shoal,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Grey  ;  after 
Thomas  Long,  Vice-President,  Collingwood  Shipbuilding  Co.,  Tor- 
onto. 

^THOMPSON.— Point,  Cockburn  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by 
Bayfield  after  an  officer  then  serving  on  the  gunboat  Confiance. 

THOMPSON.— Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  Rt.  Hon.  Sir  John 
S.  D.  Thompson  (1844-1894),  Minister  of  Justice,  1885-94  ;  Premier 
of  Canada,  1892-94. 

THREE-MILE.-^Point,  Parry  Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  fromi  being 
(rabout  three  statute  miles  from  the  town  of  Parry  Sound." 

THREE  STAR.— Shoal,  Parry  Sound  ;  marked  by  three  cross- 
es (stars)  on  old  chart. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  75 

THUMB.— Rock,    Western  Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive. 

THUNDER. — Bay.  Skncoe  ;  present  Owen  Sound  was  named 
Thunder  Bay  on  Bouchette's  map,  1815  ;  probably  the  name  was 
misplaced  and  is  a  translation  of  the  Indian  name. 

TIE-: — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  "so  called  from  the  fact  of  tugs 
tying  up  to  it  with  their  rafts  in  southerly  gales." 

TILTON.— Reef,  Bruce  ;  after  Lieut. -Col.  J.  Ti,lton,  Deputy 
Minister  of  Fisheries,  1884-91. 

TINDALL. — Point,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  resident  of  Parry 
Sound. 

TINY. — Beach  and  island,  Simcoe  ;  name  originally  applied  to 
the  township,  which  named  after  one  of  Lady  Sarah  Maitland's  pet 
dogs. 

TOAD. — Island,     Manitoulin  ;  from  its  shape  ;  resembles  a  toad. 

TOBERMORY.— Harbour,  Bruce  ;  after  Tobermory,  seaport, 
Argyllshire,  Scotland,  which  from  Gaelic  and  Irish,  tobar  moire 
"well  of  the  Virgin  Mary." 

*TODD. — Point,  Simcoe  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  possibly  after  an 
official  of  Penetanguisheme  naval  station. 

TODD. — Point  and  shoal,  Amedroz  Island,  Algoma  ;  after  late 
Alpheus  Todd,  LL.D.,  librarian  of  Parliament,  1867-84. 

TODDS. — Point,    Simcoel;  after  an  early  surveyor  of  that  name. 

TOLSMA. — Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Tolsma,  who  carried 

on  an  extensive  fishing  business  here. 

TOMLINSON.—  Islands,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Joseph 
Tomlinson,  Engineer  and  Superintendent  of  Lighthouses,  Depart- 
ment of  Marine  and  Fisheries,  1873-80. 

TONTY.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Henri  de 
Tonti  (or  Tonty)  (1650-1704),  lieutenant  of  JLa  Salle  in  his  explora- 
tions of  the  Mississippi. 

TOTTENHAM.— Shoal,  Muskoka  ;  probably  after  Tottenham, 
parish,  suburb  of  London,  England. 

TOWNSEND.— Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  the  owner. 

TRACK.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  it  is  near  the  track  for  steam- 
ers. 

TRANCH.— Rock,  Parry  Sound,  and  rock,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a 
lake  captain. 

TREE. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  from  a  single  large  pine-tree  on 
it. 

TRENT.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  vessel  which  Lieut. 
Franklin  commanded  in  his  Arctic  voyage  to  Spitsbergen,  1818. 

TRIBUNE.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  Parry  (q.v.)  was  appointed 
midshipman  in  the  Tribune  in  1806. 

TRITON.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  the  Triton,  British  sur- 
veying vessel. 


76  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

TROW.— Point,  and  TROW  POINT,  shoal,  Algoma  ;  after 
James  Trow,  M.P.  for  South  Perth,  1872-92. 

TRUDKAU. — Point,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  Toussaint  Tru- 
deau,  Deputy  Minister  of  Public  Works,  1868-79  ;  Deputy  Minister 
of  Railways  and  Canals,  1879-92. 

TRUDEAUX. — Point,  Simcoe  ;  after  Jean  Baptiste  Trudcaux  ; 
was  blacksmith  in  the  Navy  ;  later,  settled  there. 

TRYON. — Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  Admiral  Sir  George  Try  on, 
commanding  fleet  at  time  of  the  Victoria-Camperdown  collision, 
June  23rd,  1893. 

TUG.*— Rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  tug  Robti. 

TULLY.—  Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  late  Kivas  Tully,  C.E.,  Tor- 
onto, father  of  Mrs.  Band  (q.v.<). 

TUPPER.— Island,  North  Channel,  Sudbury  ;  after  Sir  Charles 
Tupper,  Minister  of  Inland  Revenue,  1872-73  ;  of  Customs,  1873  ; 
of  Public  Works,  1878-79  ;  of  Railways  and  Canals,  1879-84  ;  High 
Commissioner  for  Canada,  1884-87,  1888-96  ;  Minister  of  Finance, 
1888  ;  Premier,  1896.  (  > 

TURNBULL.— Island,  and  TURNBULL  ISLAND,  passage, 
North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Lieut. -Col.  James  F.  Turnbull, 
Commandant,  Royal  Can.  Dragoons,  1883  ;  accompanied  his  corps 
to  N.  W.  T.  on  outbreak  of  Riel  rebellion,  1885  ;  Inspector  of  Cav- 
alry, 1895  ;  retired,  1895. 

TURNER.— Cove,  Manitoulin  ;  after  postmaster,  Little  Cur- 
rent., 

TURNING. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  "as  its  name  indicates, 
marks  the  turning  point  from  the  middle  reach  into  the  main  body 
of  Shawanaga  Bay." 

ttTURNING.—  Island,  Bruce,  and  rock,  Muskoka. 

TURTLE. — Channel,  Parry  Sound  ;  from  a  rock  in  the  channel 
having  a  fancied  resemblance  to  a  turtle. 

tfTURTLE.— Rock,  Muskoka,   and  rock,   Algoma. 

TWIN. — Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  "as  its  name  indicates,  it  is  al- 
most divided  into  two  parts." 

tfTWIN.— Islands,  Manitoulin. 

tfTWIN.—  Rock,  Parry  Sound. 

TWINING.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  ALgoma  ;  after  Lieut.- 
Col.  P.  G.  Twining,  R.E.,  graduate  of  Royal  Military  College, 
1883. 

TWO-MILE.— Point,  Parry  Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  from  "being 
about  two  statute  miles  from  the  town  of  Parry  Sound." 

tfTWO-MILE.—  Narrows   Parry  Sound. 

TYRWHITT.— Shoal,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Lieut.- 
Col.  R.  Tyrwhitt,  M.P.  for  South  Simcoe,  1878-1900. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  77 

UMBRELLA. — Islands  and  ledges,  Parry  Sound  ;  "presumably 
from  a  single  large  pine  tree  growing  upon  one  of  the^  inside  islets." 

UNDERHILL.— Point,  Badgley  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  H.,  H. 
Underbill,  draughtsman  in  the  Hydrographic  Department,  Admiral- 
ty- 

VAIL.— Point,  and  VAIL  POINT,  shoal,  Grey  ;  after  a  Meaford 
fisherman. 

tfVA'IL.— Rock,  Parry  Sound. 

VALENTINE.— Rocks,  Muskoka  ;  after  Valentine  Rickcord, 
Fleet  Paymaster  in  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camper- 
down,  1893. 

VANGUARD.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  Parry  (q-.v.)  served  in  H. 
M.  S.  Vanguard,  1808-09. 

VANKOUGHNET.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late  Lawrence 
Vankoughnet,  Superintendent-General  of  Indian  Affairs,  1874-93. 

ttVANKOUGHNET.— Ground,  Parry  Sound. 

VARIATION.— Point,  Beckwith  Island,  Simcoe  ;  "so  called  be- 
cause the  late  Admiral  Bay  field,  when  surveying  Georgian  Bay  in 
1822,  observed  here  for  variation  of  the  magnetic  needle." 

VICTOR.— Bank,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  H.R.'H.  Albert  Victor 
Christian  Edward  of  Wales,  Duke  of  Clarence  (1864-92). 

VICTORIA.— Island,  Parry  Sound,  and  harbour,  Simcoe  ;  after 
late  Queen  Victoria  (1819-1901). 

*VIDAL. — Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  an  assistant  to  Capt.  Bay- 
field  ;  he  was  the  grandfather  of  late  Gen.  Beaufort  Henry  Vidal. 
On  Dec.  6,  1815,  Monroe,  U.S.  Secretary  of  State,  wrote  the  British 
representative  at  Washington,  reporting  "an  enquiry  into  the  case 
of  Lieutenant  Vidal,  who  had  been  fined  for  riot  while  pursuing  of- 
fenders into  American  territory." 

tfVIDAL.— Bay,    Manitoulin  Island. 

VILLIERS.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late  Col. 
Villiers,  D.A.G.,  Winnipeg. 

VIVIAN. — Rocks,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  cook  in  steamer  Bay- 
field. 

VIXEN.— Rocks,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  lake 
vessel. 

VOYAGEUR.— Channel,  Algoma  ;  "it  was  by  this  mouth  of 
French  River  that  the  canoes  in  the  early  days  are  said  to  have 
entered  Georgian  Bay  from'  Lake  Nipissing  on  their  way  west- 
ward." 

WABOO.— Island,  West  Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  Indian  word  meaning 
"rabbit." 


78  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

WABOSON.— Island,  ManitouTin  ;  Indian  name  meaning  "little 
rabbit." 

WAUBUNO.— Bank,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the 
steamer  Waubuno,  lost  with  all  hands  in  a  snowstorm,  Nov.  22nd, 

1879. 

ttWATJBTJNO.— Channel,  Sudbury. 

tfWATJBUNO.—  Channel  and  rock,  Parry  Sound. 

WAGSTAFF. — Rock,   Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  tourist. 

WAIT-A-BIT.— Point,  Simcoe  ;  from  delay  to  sailboats  by  get- 
ting into  an  eddy  here. 

WALES.— Rock,     Muskoka  ;    after    tug    Wales. 

WALKER. — Point,  Muskoka  ;  after  John  Walker,  farmer  ; 
prior  to  1875,  was  known  as  Long  Point.  , 

*W ALL-— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  "from  the  south  side  of  Wall 
Island,  a  reef,  named  The  Wall  (on  account  of  the  steepness  of  its 
eastern  side),  extends." 

tt*W ALL.—  Island,   Parry  Sound. 

tfWALL  ISLAND.— Channel,  Manitoulin. 

WALLACE.— Island  and  rock,  North  Channel,  Algoma;  after 
the  late  Hon.  N.  Clarke  Wallace,  M.P.  for  West  York,  1878  to  1901. 

WALLACE.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  a  Parry  Sound  fisher- 
man. 

WALLIS.— Rocks,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Lieut.  Wallis  Provo,  of 
H.M.S.  Shannon  which  captured  the  Chesapeake,  June  1st,  1813. 

WARD.— Island,  Muskoka  ;  after  Hon.  Cyril  A.  Ward,  midship- 
man in  the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camper  down,  June 
23rd,  1893. 

*WATCHER.—  Islands,  NOKTH  and  SOUTH,  and  reef,  Musko- 
ka ;  "two  small  islands  acting  as  a  kind  of  guard  to  the  shore, 
hence  the  name." 

WATERS.— Point,  John  Island,  Algoma;  after  late  Dr.  John 
Francis  Waters,  Department  of  the  Secretary  of  State. 

WATTS.— Rock,  Heywood  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  a  boat- 
builder,  W.  Watts,  of  Collingwood. 

WEBBER.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  a  draughts- 
man at  the  Admiralty. 

WEDGE. — Island,   Parry  Sound  ;  descriptive., 

WELDON.— Shoal,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late  Dr.  C. 
W.  Weldon,  M.P.  for  St.  John,  N.B.,  1878-91. 

WELLER.— Island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  J.  L. 
Weller,  Superintendent,  Well  and  Canal  ;  graduate  of  Royal  Military 
College,  1883. 

W-ELSH.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Muriel  Welsh  Boulton, 
daughter  of  Capt.  Boulton. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  79 


*WESTERN.—  Islands,  Parry  Sound  ;  most  westerly  "  of  the 
''30,000  Islands,"  east  coast  of  Georgian  Bay. 

WESTERN.— Reef,  Manitoulin  ;  "from  being  the  westernmost 
of  all  the  patches,  being  near  the  west  entrance  of  Clapperton  Chan- 
nel." 

WHALESBACK.^-Rock,  Muskoka  ;  has  "a  round  top  that  is 
supposed  to  resemble  the  back  of  a  whale." 

ttWHALESBACK.— Channel  and  rock,  North  Channel,  Algo- 
ma. 

WH!\RTON.—  Point,  Heywood  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  late 
Rear-Admiral  Sir  William  J.  L.  Wharton,  Hydrographer  of  the 
Admiralty. 

WHEELER.— Bank,  Nottawasaga  Bay,  Simcoe  ;  after  a  resi- 
dent of  Collingwood. 

WHIP-POOR-WILL.—  Bay,  Bruce  ;  from  the  unusually  large 
amount  of  whip-poor-wills  frequenting  the  vicinity. 

WHISKEY.— Island,  Simcoe  ;  "it  was  the  custom  of  the  earlv 
voyageurs  and  Indians  to  halt  there  for  their  first  drink  of  liquor. .' ' 

WHITCHER.—  Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  late 
W.  F.  Whitcher,  Commissioner  of  Fisheries,  1868-83. 

WHITE. — Cove,  Strawberry  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  the  late 
Hon.  Thomas  White,  Minister  of  the  Interior,  1885-88. 

WHITEAVES.— Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  late  Dr. 
Joseph  Frederick  Whiteaves,  Assistant  Director,  Geological  Sur- 
vey, 1883. 

*  WHITE  CLOUD. — Island,  Bruce  ;  probably  after  an  Indian,  or 
translation  of  Indian  name. 

WICKSTEED.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  G.  W.  Wicksteed,  Law 
Clerk,  Legislative  Assembly,  Province  of  Canada,  1841-67  ;  Law 
Clerk,  House  of  Commons,  1867-87. 

WICKSTEED.— Rock,  Key  Harbour,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  H.  K. 
Wicksteed,  Chief  Engineer,  Canadian  Northern  Railway. 

WIKWEMIK'ONG.— Bay,  Manitoulin  ;  Indian  name  meaning 
"beaver  bay"  ;  at  one  time  the  beavers  were  numerous  here  ;  some- 
times called  Smith  Bay  after  a  trader. 

WILD  GOOSE.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  "from  ...  a  sloping 
pine  tree  with  a  top  branch  resembling  somewhat  a  goose  on  the 
wing,  near  the  southern  extremity." 

WILFRID —Island,  North  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the  Rt. 
Hon.  Sir  Wilfrid  Laurier,  Premier  of  Canada,  1896-1911. 

*WILLIAM.—  Island,  Manitoulin  ;  probably*  after  Sir  William 
Sidney  Smith  (q.v.). 

WILLIAM.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Admiral  Sir  William 
E.  Parry  (q.v.). 


80  ONTARIO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

*WILLI AM.— Point,  Grey  ;  after  Commodore  Sir  Edward  Wil- 
liam Campbell  Rich  Owen  (q.v.)  ;  name  obsolete  ;  now  Vail  Point., 

WILSON. — Channel  and  island,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;' 
after  Major  Wilson,  Indian  Agent  at  Sault  Ste.  Marie. 

WILSON. — Point,  Croker  Island,  Algoma  ;  after  Christian 
name  of  John  Wilson  Croker  (q.v.),  Secretary  to  the  Admiralty, 
1809-30. 

*WINGFI ELD.—  Basin  and  point,  Bruce  ;  after  Lieut.  David 
Wingfield,  R.N.  ;  in  command  of  the  transport  Beckwith  on  Lake 
Ontario,  1816  ;  Oct.  i6th,  1815,  was  Lieutenant  commanding  the 
Surprise  on  Lake  Huron. 

WISE.— Cove  and  point,  Bedford  Island,  North  Channel  ;  after 
the  late  Capt.  Henry  Ellison  Wise,  Scottish  Rifles,  A. B.C.  to  Ma- 
jor-General  Middleton,  1884-90  ;  graduate  of  Royal  Military  Col- 
lege, 1880. 

WOLSELEY.— Rock,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  late  Lord  Wolseley, 
Commander-in-chief  of  the  British  land  forces. 

WOLSEY. — Lake,  Manitoulin  ;  named  by  Bayfield  after  himself 
— Henry  Wolsey  Bayfield. 

WOLSTAN.— Point,  Algoma  ;  after  a  son  of  late  H.  B.  Small, 
Department  of  Agriculture. 

WOODMAN.— Point,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  John 
Woodman,  C.E.,  Winnipeg  ;  graduated  from  the  Royal  Military 
College,  1883. 

WOODWARD.— Point,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  the 
vschooner  Mary  Woodward. 

WOORE. — Rocks,  Muskoka  ;  after  Francis  Woore,  Surgeon  in 
the  Victoria,  sunk  in  collision  with  the  Camperdown  off  Tripoli, 

1893. 

*WORSLEY.—  Bay,  St.  Joseph  Island,  Algoma  ;  named  by 
Bayfield  after  Commander  Miller  Worsley,  R.N.,  who,  in  October, 
1815,  was  commander  of  H.M.S.  Star  (14),  Lake  Ontario. 

WRECK. — Island,  Parry  Sound;  after  the  remains  of  the  steam- 
er Waubuno. 

WRECK. — Point,   Bruce  ;  descriptive  ;  (see  China  reef). 

WTTRTELE.—  Point,  St.  Joseph  Channel,  Algoma  ;  after  Lt.- 
Col.  E.  F.  Wurtele  ;  graduate  of  the  Royal  Military  College,  1882. 

*WYE. — River,  Simcoe  ;  after  the  Wye,  an  affluent  of  the  Thames 
River,  England. 

*YAR WOOD.  —Point,  Simcoe  ;  named  by  Bayfield  ;  probably  af- 
ter Lieut.  Thomas  Yarwood,  1st  Battalion,  Montreal  City  Militia  } 
served  during  War  of  1812-14. 


PLACE-NAMES  IN  GEORGIAN  BAY.  81 

*YEO.— Island,  Manitoulin  ;  after  Commodore  Sir  James  Lucas 
Yeo  (1782-1818)  ;  commanded  the  fleet  on  Lake  Ontario,  1812-15. 

ttYEO.—  Channel,  Manitoulin. 

tfYEO  ISLAND.— Spit,  Manitoulin. 

YOUNG.— Island,  Parry  Sound  ;  after  Rt.  Rev.  Richard  Young, 
Bishop  of  Athabaska. 


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